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Lecture 3

MCB 2000 Lecture 3: 2000 Exam Three Studyguide

16 Pages
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Department
Microbiology and Cell Science
Course Code
MCB 2000
Professor
Asghari Karim

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MCB 2000 Exam Three Study guide
1. How skin wards off infection. Name and describe two layers of skin
a. Low pH
b. Salinity - sweat
c. Local flora
d. Epidermis – top layer
e. Dermis – flexible middle layer
2. List important features of Staphylococci (S. aureus) and Streptococci (Strep pyogenes) including list
of virulence factors each one possesses/share, the disease each one causes/share
a. S. Aureus:
i. Virulence factors not shared w/ strep:
1. Leukocidin
2. Protease
3. Nuclease
4. Penicillinase
5. Protein A
ii. Diseases not shared:
1. MRSA
2. Staph
3. Scalded skin syndrome
4. Abscess
5. Food Poisoning
6. Boils
b. S. Pyogenes
i. Virulence factors not shared w/ staph
1. Streptolysin S and O
2. Streptokinase
3. DNAse
ii. Diseases not shared:
1. Strep throat
2. Scarlet fever
3. Rheumatic fever
4. Flesh eating fasciitis
c. SHARED virulence
i. Hyaluronidase
ii. Hemloysin
iii. Capsule
d. SHARED diseases:
i. Toxic shock syndrome
ii. Impetigo
iii. Wound infections
3. What makes Staph and Strep resist phagocytosis?
a. Staph- capsule
b. Strep – M protein
4. Name the antibiotic used to treat Staph skin infections. Why resistance to this drug is an issue
a. Resistance because S. Aureus is encapsulated so not reached by antibiotics
b. Antibiotic - methicillin (a form of penicillin)
5. Describe how acne bacteria damages the skin; folliculitis, sty, furuncles, carbuncles, pustules,
a. Folliculitis: infection of the hair follicle
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b. Sty: infection of oil glands in the eye
c. Furuncles: technical term for a boil
d. Carbuncles: severe abscess/ multiple boils
e. Pustules: small blister or pimple filled with pus
6. Name and describe skin infections caused by viruses. Mode of transmission? Any treatment for
them? Is there any vaccine available for them?
a. Vaccines available for all but herpes (HSV1 and HSV2)
b. Small Pox – contaminated water, no treatment
c. Chicken Pox – contact, lotion to sooth rash
d. Herpes – contact, no cure but treated with acyclovir
e. Rubella – contact, declared eliminated in US due to vaccine
f. Measles – contact, no treatment can only take medicine to help w/ symptoms
g. Roseola - contact, lotion to sooth rash and fever reducers
7. Name common childhood rashes caused by viruses:
a. Chicken pox (varicella – zoster virus) – generalized macular lesions
b. Rubella – pimply rash (maculopapular exanthema)
c. Measles (rubeola virus) – rash
d. Roseola (human herpes virus 6) – rose colored rash
8. What is the difference between chickenpox and shingles? What is meant by recurrent infections?
a. Chicken pox: lesions all over skin in children
b. Shingles: virus that causes chicken pox remains in body latently and can reoccur in adulthood
due to immunocompromization.
c. Recurrent infection: symptomatic reactivation of a latent infection
9. List different types of skin infections caused by fungi?
a. Dermatomycoses
b. Sporotrichosis
c. Blastomycosis
d. Candidiasis
e. Aspergillosis
f. Zygomycosis
10. Define mycosis.
a. Disease caused by infection with a fungus such as ringworm or thrush
11. Name and describe two skin infections caused by parasites.
a. Scabies – caused by a mite
b. Leishmaniasis – spread through sand flys
12. Describe important features of smallpox: type of rash, significance of vaccine
a. Type of rash: Pustules and scabs
b. Vaccine: eradicated disease
13. Define conjunctivitis. Which organism causes trachoma? What are the characteristics of this disease
a. Conjunctivitis – inflammation of the conjunctiva in the eye
b. Trachoma agent – Chlamydia trachomatis
c. Characteristics – inflammation and destruction of the cornea and conjunctiva of eye. Most
preventable cause of blindness.
14. What are the important features of herpes viruses? Compare HSV-1 and HSV-2? Which other viruses
belong to the family of herpes viruses?
a. HSV-1: present everywhere in body
b. HSV-2: Present only in genitals
c. Other viruses in the family:
i. Varicella – zoster virus – chicken pox and shingles
ii. Human herpes virus 6- Roseola
15. What is meant by latent infection? Why is it hard to cure herpes? Name the drug use
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a. Latent infection: disease goes into “hiding”
i. Persisting in tissues but showing no symptoms
b. Herpes Treatment: Difficult because of latency
i. Drug used is called acyclovir
16. Name two diseases associated with CNS. How active is the immune system in CNS?
a. Bacterial meningitis
b. Poliomyelitis
c. Immune system: blood brain barrier causes immune system to work differently in the CNS
i. “Immune privilege” macrophages are scarce and work at a slower pace
17. Compare viral and bacterial meningitis? What are the signs and symptoms of meningitis?
a. Viral:
i. Signs/ Symptoms
1. Much milder than bacterial
ii. Diagnosis/ Treatment/ Prevention –
1. Spread in respiratory droplets and feces
2. Attack cells in intestinal tract but don’t cause GI illness
3. No specific treatment exists
iii. Causes-
1. 90% - enterovirus
b. Bacterial:
i. Signs/ Symptoms – develop rapidly
1. Sudden high fever and severe meningeal inflammation
2. Inflamed cranial meninges – severe headache, vomiting, pain
3. Inflamed spinal meninges – stiff neck, altered muscle control
4. Brain infection/ encephalitis – behavioral changes, coma, death
ii. Diagnosis/ Treatment/ Prevention –
1. Diagnosed through CSF via a spinal tap
2. Treated with a antimicrobial drugs
3. Vaccines for: H. influenzae, pneumococci, and meningococcal strains
4. Milk cheeses and undercooked meat can be contaminated
a. Do not let food spoil and cook meat to appropriate temp.
iii. Causes-
1. Streptococcus pneumoniae---Leading cause of meningitis in adults
2. Neisseria meningitidis---Fimbria, capsule, and LOS---Can become epidemic
3. Haemophilus influenzae---Vaccine available
4. Listeria monocytogenes---Affects fetus, immunocompromised individuals---via
food
18. What causes meningococcal meningitis?
a. Neisseria Meningitidis
b. Most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children and teens
c. Second most common in adults
19. Name several bacterial and viral diseases of nervous system
a. Bacterial – Meningitis, Tetanus, Botulism
b. Viral – Rabies, Polio, Meningitis, Encephalitis
20. What are the important characteristics of rabies and polio infections
a. Rabies – Very long incubation period (1-2 months)
i. Prevention is vaccination of animals
ii. Spread by infection animal bites and scratches
b. Polio - Muscle spasms, back pains, paralysis
i. Preventions is vaccination
ii. Spread through drinking contaminated water
21. What are the most important features of arboviruses?
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Description
MCB 2000 Exam Three Study guide 1. How skin wards off infection. Name and describe two layers of skin a. Low pH b. Salinity - sweat c. Local flora d. Epidermis – top layer e. Dermis – flexible middle layer 2. List important features of Staphylococci (S. aureus) and Streptococci (Strep pyogenes) including list of virulence factors each one possesses/share, the disease each one causes/share a. S. Aureus: i. Virulence factors not shared w/ strep: 1. Leukocidin 2. Protease 3. Nuclease 4. Penicillinase 5. Protein A ii. Diseases not shared: 1. MRSA 2. Staph 3. Scalded skin syndrome 4. Abscess 5. Food Poisoning 6. Boils b. S. Pyogenes i. Virulence factors not shared w/ staph 1. Streptolysin S and O 2. Streptokinase 3. DNAse ii. Diseases not shared: 1. Strep throat 2. Scarlet fever 3. Rheumatic fever 4. Flesh eating fasciitis c. SHARED virulence i. Hyaluronidase ii. Hemloysin iii. Capsule d. SHARED diseases: i. Toxic shock syndrome ii. Impetigo iii. Wound infections 3. What makes Staph and Strep resist phagocytosis? a. Staph- capsule b. Strep – M protein 4. Name the antibiotic used to treat Staph skin infections. Why resistance to this drug is an issue a. Resistance because S. Aureus is encapsulated so not reached by antibiotics b. Antibiotic - methicillin (a form of penicillin) 5. Describe how acne bacteria damages the skin; folliculitis, sty, furuncles, carbuncles, pustules, a. Folliculitis: infection of the hair follicle b. Sty: infection of oil glands in the eye c. Furuncles: technical term for a boil d. Carbuncles: severe abscess/ multiple boils e. Pustules: small blister or pimple filled with pus 6. Name and describe skin infections caused by viruses. Mode of transmission? Any treatment for them? Is there any vaccine available for them? a. Vaccines available for all but herpes (HSV1 and HSV2) b. Small Pox – contaminated water, no treatment c. Chicken Pox – contact, lotion to sooth rash d. Herpes – contact, no cure but treated with acyclovir e. Rubella – contact, declared eliminated in US due to vaccine f. Measles – contact, no treatment can only take medicine to help w/ symptoms g. Roseola - contact, lotion to sooth rash and fever reducers 7. Name common childhood rashes caused by viruses: a. Chicken pox (varicella – zoster virus) – generalized macular lesions b. Rubella – pimply rash (maculopapular exanthema) c. Measles (rubeola virus) – rash d. Roseola (human herpes virus 6) – rose colored rash 8. What is the difference between chickenpox and shingles? What is meant by recurrent infections? a. Chicken pox: lesions all over skin in children b. Shingles: virus that causes chicken pox remains in body latently and can reoccur in adulthood due to immunocompromization. c. Recurrent infection: symptomatic reactivation of a latent infection 9. List different types of skin infections caused by fungi? a. Dermatomycoses b. Sporotrichosis c. Blastomycosis d. Candidiasis e. Aspergillosis f. Zygomycosis 10. Define mycosis. a. Disease caused by infection with a fungus such as ringworm or thrush 11. Name and describe two skin infections caused by parasites. a. Scabies – caused by a mite b. Leishmaniasis – spread through sand flys 12. Describe important features of smallpox: type of rash, significance of vaccine a. Type of rash: Pustules and scabs b. Vaccine: eradicated disease 13. Define conjunctivitis. Which organism causes trachoma? What are the characteristics of this disease a. Conjunctivitis – inflammation of the conjunctiva in the eye b. Trachoma agent – Chlamydia trachomatis c. Characteristics – inflammation and destruction of the cornea and conjunctiva of eye. Most preventable cause of blindness. 14. What are the important features of herpes viruses? Compare HSV-1 and HSV-2? Which other viruses belong to the family of herpes viruses? a. HSV-1: present everywhere in body b. HSV-2: Present only in genitals c. Other viruses in the family: i. Varicella – zoster virus – chicken pox and shingles ii. Human herpes virus 6- Roseola 15. What is meant by latent infection? Why is it hard to cure herpes? Name the drug use a. Latent infection: disease goes into “hiding” i. Persisting in tissues but showing no symptoms b. Herpes Treatment: Difficult because of latency i. Drug used is called acyclovir 16. Name two diseases associated with CNS. How active is the immune system in CNS? a. Bacterial meningitis b. Poliomyelitis c. Immune system: blood brain barrier causes immune system to work differently in the CNS i. “Immune privilege” macrophages are scarce and work at a slower pace 17. Compare viral and bacterial meningitis? What are the signs and symptoms of meningitis? a. Viral: i. Signs/ Symptoms – 1. Much milder than bacterial ii. Diagnosis/ Treatment/ Prevention – 1. Spread in respiratory droplets and feces 2. Attack cells in intestinal tract but don’t cause GI illness 3. No specific treatment exists iii. Causes- 1. 90% - enterovirus b. Bacterial: i. Signs/ Symptoms – develop rapidly 1. Sudden high fever and severe meningeal inflammation 2. Inflamed cranial meninges – severe headache, vomiting, pain 3. Inflamed spinal meninges – stiff neck, altered muscle control 4. Brain infection/ encephalitis – behavioral changes, coma, death ii. Diagnosis/ Treatment/ Prevention – 1. Diagnosed through CSF via a spinal tap 2. Treated with a antimicrobial drugs 3. Vaccines for: H. influenzae, pneumococci, and meningococcal strains 4. Milk cheeses and undercooked meat can be contaminated a. Do not let food spoil and cook meat to appropriate temp. iii. Causes- 1. Streptococcus pneumoniae---Leading cause of meningitis in adults 2. Neisseria meningitidis---Fimbria, capsule, and LOS---Can become epidemic 3. Haemophilus influenzae---Vaccine available 4. Listeria monocytogenes---Affects fetus, immunocompromised individuals---via food 18. What causes meningococcal meningitis? a. Neisseria Meningitidis b. Most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children and teens c. Second most common in adults 19. Name several bacterial and viral diseases of nervous system a. Bacterial – Meningitis, Tetanus, Botulism b. Viral – Rabies, Polio, Meningitis, Encephalitis 20. What are the important characteristics of rabies and polio infections a. Rabies – Very long incubation period (1-2 months) i. Prevention is vaccination of animals ii. Spread by infection animal bites and scratches b. Polio - Muscle spasms, back pains, paralysis i. Preventions is vaccination ii. Spread through drinking contaminated water 21. What are the most important features of arboviruses? a. Athropode borne diseases b. Rarely affect humans c. Causes mild cold-like symptoms d. If it crosses blood brain barrier  encephalitis 22. What are prions? How do they cause diseases? Name diseases caused by prions. a. Prions = infectious polypeptides b. How do they cause disease?  Abnormal folding of polypeptides leads to brain damage and the characteristic signs and symptoms of disease c. Diseases: mad cow disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, CJD, Scrapes 23. Define and give several examples of Zoonotic diseases a. An animal borne disease that is passed to humans b. Examples: i. Lyme disease ii. Rabies iii. Plague 24. Define arthropod-borne disease. Give examples and indicate which insect is involved in each case a. Zoonotic diseases with arthropods as the vectors b. Examples: i. West Nile Virus – Mosquito ii. Scabies – Mite iii. Lyme Disease – Tick iv. Eastern/Western/ Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis – Mosquito v. Leishmaniasis – Sand fly vi. Plague - fleas 25. What is meant by food poisoning? Which bacteria cause food poisoning? a. Toxins from contaminated food cross mucous membranes of intestinal tract i. Causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramping ii. Develops quickly: 4-6 hours b. S. Aureus c. Clostridium botulinum 26. What are the important features of Lyme disease? a. Arthropod borne (Tick- borne) disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi b. Red rash resembles a bulls eye c. Neurological symptoms d. Arthritis e. Endemic to eastern part of the US i. Woodland areas ii. Increase due to protection of deer population f. Easily treated if caught early and prevented by repellent w/ DEET 27. What are the signs and symptoms of septicemia? What is the significance of G- septicemia? a. Septicemia = Presence of microbes in the blood b. Signs/ symptoms  fever, chills, drop in BP, vomiting c. Gram Negative Septicemia (more common than G+)  release of endotoxin (Lipid A) i. Leukocytes release cytokines  fever 1. Also damage to blood vessel walls causing plasma loss and drop in BP  shock 28. What are the important features of clostridium? Name diseases caused by these organisms a. Gram positive bacillus b. Enter through open wounds c. Obligate anaerobe d. Germinate and multiply rapidly e. Diseases  i. Gangrene ii. Tetanus iii. Botulinum iv. CDAD 29. What causes TB? What are the important features of TB? What are the treatment options for TB? a. Cause – mycobacterium tuberculosis b. Features – coughing up blood, fatigue, weight loss, wheezing, night sweats
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