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Lecture 2

MCB 3020 Lecture 2: Microbiology Lecture 2 Exam 2

4 Pages
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Department
Microbiology and Cell Science
Course Code
MCB 3020
Professor
Abdolkarim Asghari

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10/7/2017
Microbiology Lecture 2 Exam 2
Environmental Effects on Enzyme Activity
Enzyme activity is significantly impacted by
o Substrate concentration
o pH
o Temperature
Denaturation
o Enzyme loses its 3-dimensional shape
o Loss of ezye’s structure and activity when temperature and pH too much above
optimal
o As you add more substrate, enzyme activity. Until enzyme becomes saturated (max) it
cannot increase any more no matter how much substrate you add
Enzyme Inhibition
Competitive inhibitor
o Directly competes with binding of substrate to active site
Noncompetitive inhibitor
o Binds enzyme at site other than active site
o Chages ezye’s shape so it eoes less atie. It ill preet sustrate fro idig
o Cannot overcome inhibitor by adding more substrate
Regulation of Metabolism
Important for conservation of energy and materials
Maintenance of metabolic balance despite chanes in environment
Three major mechanisms
o Metabolic channeling
o Regulation of synthesis of a particular enzyme (transcriptional and translational)
o Direct stimulation or inhibition of activity of a critical enzyme
Post-translationalafter protein is made, you do something to it. Add a group
to it.
Metabolic Channeling
o Differential localization of enzymes and metabolites
o Compartmentation
Differential distribution of enzymes and metabolites among separate cell
structures or organelles
Can generate marked variations in metabolite concentrations
Post-Translational Regulation of Enzyme Activity
o Two important reversible control measures
o Allosteric regulationby another molecule, you affect protein activity
o Covalent modification
Feedback inhibition
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Description
10/7/2017 Microbiology Lecture 2 Exam 2 Environmental Effects on Enzyme Activity • Enzyme activity is significantly impacted by o Substrate concentration o pH o Temperature • Denaturation o Enzyme loses its 3-dimensional shape o Loss of enzyme’s structure and activity when temperature and pH too much above optimal o As you add more substrate, enzyme activity. Until enzyme becomes saturated (max) it cannot increase any more no matter how much substrate you add Enzyme Inhibition • Competitive inhibitor o Directly competes with binding of substrate to active site • Noncompetitive inhibitor o Binds enzyme at site other than active site o Changes enzyme’s shape so it becomes less active. It will prevent substrate from binding o Cannot overcome inhibitor by adding more substrate Regulation of Metabolism • Important for conservation of energy and materials • Maintenance of metabolic balance despite chanes in environment • Three major mechanisms o Metabolic channeling o Regulation of synthesis of a particular enzyme (transcriptional and translational) o Direct stimulation or inhibition of activity of a critical enzyme ▪ Post-translational—after protein is made, you do something to it. Add a group to it. • Metabolic Channeling o Differential localization of enzymes and metabolites o Compartmentation ▪ Differential distribution of enzymes and metabolites among separate cell structures or organelles ▪ Can generate marked variations in metabolite concentrations • Post-Translational Regulation of Enzyme Activity o Two important reversible control measures o Allosteric regulation—by another molecule, you affect protein activity o Covalent modification • Feedback inhibition o Also called end-product inhibition o Inhibition of one or more critical enzymes in a pathway regulates entire pathway o Pacemaker enzyme ▪ Catalyzes the slowest or rate-limiting reaction in the pathway • Overview of metabolism: o Energy source: ▪ Chemoorganotroph—organic molecules ▪ Chemolithotroph—inorganic molecules ▪ Phototroph—light o Carbon source: ▪ Autotroph—CO2 ▪ Heterotroph—organic molecules o Electron source o Organotroph—organic molecules o Lithotroph—inorganic molecules o Chemolithoautotroph—probably first type • Examples of Electron Transport chain (anaerobic respiration): o SO4^2- o NO3-, CO2 o Fumarate • In Anaerobic respiration, you have to have a constant supply of organic energy and electron source (electron acceptor) • Endogenous compound—something within • Accumulate fermentation • Constant supply from the outside—Exogeneous o Could be oxygen, organic or inorganic C
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