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American Studies
AMH 2010
Jeffrey Adler

AMH 2010 09/03/2013 Most important theme (from last lecture):  Native Americans didn’t have immunities to common European diseases  Approximately 95% of Native Americans died  Why did it matter? o Many Europeans saw it as “God’s decision”/”God’s plan”.  Land was cleared for Europeans  They were given impunity  Devoted chauvinist and aggressive ideals o Disease made the Western world conquerable  Gave control to Europeans over different resources o 100,000 Native Americans to 1 European o Disease destroyed laborers  Led to African slave trade  Basically disease changed the history of Europe, South America, North America, and Africa Columbus  The main vector that redefined Geo-politics  Sparking new age of European influence Early affects of Old World to New World (vice versa)  Europeans didn’t have immunities to 2 diseases o Syphilis  Learned this from the markings of bones  Syphilis leaves marks on skeletal remains  Martin Alonzo Pinzón – first member of Columbus’ crew to contract syphilis  Kissing and public baths fell out of fashion because of syphilis  Approximately 10 million Europeans died due to Syphilis o Hepatitis o Malaria (minor contact) 1 AMH 2010 09/03/2013 Early affects of Old World to New World (vice versa): Continued  Crops o Native American agriculture was phenomenally better o Potatoes (extremely important), corn (extremely important), tomato, squash, tobacco (certain varieties), pumpkins, beans, peanuts, avocados, cocoa, and chili peppers  These vegetables transformed European diets o Thanks to potatoes, population of Europe could grow because of increase in chloral content  Babies healthier  Mothers healthier  Earlier baby carrying age  Immunities increase  Evidence suggest Irish men consumed 10 to 14 lbs. of potatoes in a day  Native American weaponry was “inferior” to European  Domesticated animals of the old world – dogs, guinea pigs, llamas  Spain collected 200,000 tons of gold  Spain 16,00 tons of silver o Led to better funding of Spanish Navy: i.e. the Spanish Armada o Helped to support Catholic Church  By standards set by Spanish – England was tiny not a sizeable player in the colonization of the western world o Henry the 8 complicated stuff o Henry wanted to drop Catherine of Aragon (daughter of Spain)  Pope didn’t want to give divorce because Catherine was super important o Henry didn’t like it  Denounced Catholicism  England is now Protestant  Spanish got pissed  Religion and Nationalism – go hand in hand  Economic boom in luxury goods in Europe o Changed the way landowners thought  Removed farmers and got sheep instead  Wool goods were like the shit 2 AMH 2010 09/03/2013  Removed farmers moved to cities o Better job security th o 600K population in London by 17 Century o Original Londoner’s didn’t appreciate this  Farmers where filthy because of their lives on the streets  1603 – 40,000 people died in London due to epidemic(s)  1665 – 90,000 people died in London due to epidemic(s)  No social welfare/infrastructure system to help them  To combat these issues Englanders sent farmers to Georgia and Australia o Georgia and Australia were penal colony o Queen loved the idea  Colonize new places
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