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American Studies
AMH 2010
Allen Kent

Native Americans, Explorers, and First Contacts Native Americans • Pop. Estimates from 1942 range from 50-90 million • First natives likely arrived by Bering Strait • NativeAmerican groups were not homogeneous • Native civilizations in present-day U.S., but more advanced societies in Mexico, South America Tribes and Groups of U.S. • Mound builders of Mississippi River Valley • The Hopi and Zuni of the Southwest • The buffalo hunters of the Great Plains • Various Eastern tribes based on agriculture and hunting Native American Life and Culture • Religion: large part of most native life, connection between natural and supernatural • Native ideas about property were largely based on ideas of shared space • Women held a very important position in native society o More rights o Could own land and did more labor Native Freedom vs. European Freedom • Some Europeans admired the “free” nature of NativeAmericans; others saw too much freedom • Explorers often viewed native cultures as savage and uncivilized (religion, property, gender roles) European Exploration • Trade routes with Far East the largest push for exploration (silk, tea, spices, and porcelain th • 15 Century: Portuguese explorers est. themselves along the WestAfrican Coast o Items invented to help traveling: 1. Quadrant, 2. Compass 3. Quarrel • 1487: Bartholomeum Dias – Cape of Good Hope • 1498: Vasco da Gama – aroundAfrica to India The New World • Amerigo Vespucci, 1498-1502: traveled down the coast of SouthAmerica • Began a massive period of exploration and conquest, by Spain • Hernan Cortes, 1519: frst to encounter a large civilization and wiped them out (Tenochtitlan) o Superior weaponry o Received assistance from neighboring groups o Disease The Columbian Exchange • Brought new foods, plants, and animals • Brought diseases which NativeAmericans were highly susceptible to Columbus • “Discovery” marks the beginning of a continuous connection between Europe, the Americas, and Africa • New crops were introduced = diets changed • New germs were introduced = many people died • 1492-1820: almost 80% of people coming to the New World wereAfrican slaves • New World = new type of freedom for white Europeans, but this freedom came at a price for others The Spanish, French, and Dutch in the New World Spanish America • Conquistadors wiped out massive native populations through disease and warfare • Est. an immense, sophisticated, and well-organized empire in the New World (Mexico City) • Conquistadors replaced with a political system of governors, bureaucrats, and priests • Spanish colonists were outnumbered by natives Native Americans in New Spain • Initial contact particularly brutal, used to conquer territory • Forced labor was completed by natives who survived the initial conquests • Plan was to assimilate natives into their New World societies, use what already exists to continue building • 1514: marriage between natives and Spaniards approved Spanish reasons for Coming to America 1. Wealth 2. Territory 3. National Glory 4. The spread of Catholicism o 1517: Martin Luther, 95 Theses The Black Legend • Brutal initial conquests est. the idea that the Spaniards were the most ruthless in their treatment of Indians (Propaganda) • Paradox of SpanishAmerica: hypocrisy of murdering, conquering, and enslaving native peoples in the name of Christian religion • 1537: Pope Paul III outlawed native enslavement • 1542: New Laws • 1552: Bartolome de Las Casas –AVery BriefAccount of the Destruction of the Indies The Spanish in North America • 1513: Ponce de Leon travels to Florida o 1565, St. Augustine • 1530s – 1540s: Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo exploration of the Pacific Coast • Others (de Soto, de Vaca, de Coronado) searched around the Southwest and Gulf of Mexico Pueblo Revolt, 1680 • Many Natives “adopted” Christianity • As the Spanish stepped up their assault on native religion, many natives began to rebel • Pueblo Indians killed around 400 Spanish colonists and ousted them from the are (Pope) • After revolt, Spanish took on an approach that was more allowing of native culture The French and Dutch in America • French were also searching for gold and a way to get through the continent to the Pacific • French and Dutch viewed native societies in terms of trading more than colonizing • Both sent very few colonists to settle in theAmericas Important French and Dutch Settlements • 1608: Samuel de Chaplin (FRA) – Quebec • 1609: Henry Hudson (NED) – NY Harbor • 1624: Dutch West India Co. (NED) – Manhattan • Jacques Marquette (Jesuit priest) and Louis Joliet (fur trader) found the Mississippi River • 1681: Rene Robert Cavalier and Sieur de la Salle(FRA) – Down Miss. To the Gulf of Mexico England Exploration th England in the 16 Century • Religious battles and civil war kept England in a lower position of importance • 1520s-1530s: Henry VIII was refused a marriage annulment by the Pope; est. Church of England/Anglican Church • Mary Tudor attempted to restore Catholicism, unsuccessfully • 1558-1603: Elizabeth I restored the Church of England and executed over 100 Catholic priests • Attempts to subdue Catholic Ireland kept England busy, both policy-wise and monetarily Reasons for Exploration and Colonization • Early settlements attempts: Sir Humphrey Gilbert (Newfoundland, 1582) and Sir Walter Raleigh (Roanoke Island, 1585) • English saw themselves as saviors of NativeAmericans from the brutal rule of the Spanish • Also saw opportunity for wealth, better standing in world affairs • Huge surge in pop. Brought economic and social issues to England Who left? • Only way to create a lasting colony in the New World to have people willing to emigrate • Initially, mostly men, but some families • Those who could not pay their way came over as indentured servants • For many immigrants, this was about freedom – religious freedom, freedom to own land, freedom to control your own labor The British and Native Americans • English colonists were more interested in taking the natives’lands, displacing them in the process • Unlike the Spanish, Native and British societies remained separate • Began to change the way NativeAmericans lived, especially because of British goods • British attempts to replicate their society inAmerica also changed the actual land they settled Jamestown • 1607: Virginia Company est. Jamestown as the capital of the colony Virginia • Had extremely difficult time settling the Chesapeake (disease, long winters, and gold) • Transition from profit venture to settlement • 1619: House of Burgesses • 1619: FirstAfricans arrived in VA Jamestown and the Natives • Powhatan was a native chief nearby the Jamestown settlement, est. trading with the English • The uprising of 1622: Opechancanough led a surprise attack on the English settlers that killed about 300 of 1200 • Colonist’s response weakened local natives, who were forced to submit to the power of the colony • 1624: Virginia Company gave up on the venture; Virginia first royal colony in the New World Virginia Society • Over time, local elites took the lead in VA • Built their wealth and power through tobacco • More and more emigrants left England to run tobacco farms or to work farms in VA o 1700: white population around 90,000 • Men outnumbered women about 4 or 5 to 1 through most of the 17 century Maryland – The Other Chesapeake Colony • 1623: proprietary colony, granted solely to Cecilius Calvert • Saw the colony more in terms of a kingdom • Hoped to provide a Catholic haven and a place where Protestants and Catholics could live in harmony New England, Religion, and British Freedoms Puritans • Puritans were Protestants who believed that The Church of England was still too much like the Catholic Church o Elec or Damned o Thought God’s will could be read through a persons successes • Religious “freedom” did not mean people were free to worship as they chose • 1620: Pilgrims, the first Puritans to leave forAmerica (Mayflower Compact) • 1629: Massachusetts Bay Company Living in New England • New England developed much differently than Chesapeake (families, money, climate, older, lived longer and populated more) • Massachusetts was based on creating close- knit towns with farming on the outskirts o Harvard est. in 1636 o First printing press in 1638 • Government was elected by freemen in the colony, not a royally appointed governor o No separation of church and state o Somewhat democratic, but a highly hierarchical society Divisions amongst New Englanders • 1631: Roger Williams arrived in Mass.And advocated for true religious freedom • 1636: Est. Rhode Island • 1634:Anne Hutchinson led church meetings, denounced clergy members, claimed that God spoke to and through her • 1662: Splits in Mass.Also led to the est. of Connecticut Native Americans in New England • Settlers attempted to live peacefully among the Indians, but mostly wanted to gain native land and move its people along • 1637: Pequot War led to more white settlement in the region o Important fur trader killed by natives The Economy/ The Half-Way Covenant • Economy in New England was based on textiles, fishing, timber, and family farming • Merchants became a huge part of NE society, as they goods from other colonies to Europe and Africa • Puritans faced the problem of new generations and their role in the church and New England society o 1662: Half-Way Covenant o Children of Elec would lead church British Freedom, Religion, and American Colonies • “The Rights of Englishmen” were rules governing the freedoms of freeman throughout the English world o Right to face accuser • English Civil War of the mid – 17 century challenged and expanded on these ideas o Parliament vs. British Crown o Kill King Charles I o Oliver Cromwell – Head of ParliamentaryArmy o Charles II takes back crown • Writers, religious leaders, and thinkers questioned the Gov. in England • Liberty and freedom as concepts were now based more on the rights of all Englishmen, and England seen as a protector of liberty and freedom throughout the world British Freedom, Religion, and American Colonies • These new ideas in England were frightening to Puritan leaders, especially ideas about expanded religious freedoms • In Maryland, Civil War sparked violent disagreement amongst the colony’s Catholics and Protestants o Act Concerning Religion (1649) Living in British Colonies 3 Main Goals 1. ControlAtlantic Trade 2. Continue to establish trade along the East Coast 3. To observe greater control over Empire Trade, Power, and Expansion • Mercantilism • Navigation Acts (1651,1660,1663): limitations on imports and exports for/from colonies o Goods must be shipped to England first o Imports also had to come through England • 1664: English to New Netherland and it became NY o 1683: Charter of Liberties and Privileges • 1680s: Five Nations (Iroquois) allied with English in NY, helped clear the land of native rival tribes Carolina and Pennsylvania • 1663: Charles II allowed 8 proprietors to est. Carolina colony, a barrier to the Spanish FL • Hierarchical: wealthy came to obtain land, were guaranteed absolute over their slaves • 1681: William Penn granted land south and west of NY by Charles II • Founded on ideas of Quaker liberty, by far the most liberal and inclusive Slavery in the Colonies • Advantages of usingAfrican slaves and the spread of agriculture led to a shift from indentured servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake • Brought together large groups of enslaved laborers who worked for a single owner • Slavery and the plantation system dominated in West Indies before coming to mainland colonies • English conceptions of race est. a rigid structure that separated white and black Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 • VAGov. William Berkeley provided his friends with the best lands in the colony • Protection of native land and heavy taxes also hurt small farmers • Rebellion accelerated the removal of natives from western lands and shift to a slave-based society • 1705: House of Burgesses enacted new slave code; set very strict guidelines on slaves and free blacks The Glorious Revolution • 1688: England still fighting over religion and Parliamentary power vs. the Crown o William of Orange • 1689: Parliament enacted a Bill of Rights, cemented their power and individual rights • 1690: TolerationAct allowed more free worship for Protestants • Late 1680s, England tightened its control over theAmerican colonies • Glorious Revolution triggered rebellions in Maryland, NY, and New England • Ideas in England were mirrored in theAmerican colonies, Protestantism prospered The Salem Witch Trials, 1692 • Many Puritans saw God’s favor in certain acts, but also believed in the power of evil forces Goals 1. Christian rule is at higher position in society 2. Woman will follow the rules men set • Several young girls in Salem began to have fits and nightmares, and witchcraft was suspected o 14 woman, 6 men executed • Mass. Gov. dissolved the Salem court and freed the remaining prisoners Increasing Pop. And Diversity • 18 c.: massive growth in English NorthAmerica • People also became more diverse o Main group at the time coming over is Germans • Religious diversity flourished; immigrant groups set up enclaves for their various denominations • NativeAmericans of the 1700s were very different from their ancestral tribes • Diversity between regions in the colonies Consumer Goods and Cities • Availability and sale of inexpensive consumer goods grew • EnglishAmerican cities were used mainly as ports of commerce to import and export goods • Cities were also home to artisans, skilled craftsman who made and sold consumer goods to the wealthiest colonists Economic and Social Classes • Awealthy elite began to develop, and developed differently according to region • Wealth and power was handed down, preserving elite • Anglicization – the elite and wealthy modeled themselves off the English gentry • S.C. planters were richer than any other mainland colonists Economic and Social classes • As the pop. Expanded, land was much more difficult to come by, leading to new groups of poverty-stricken wage earners • Largest group of colonists (2/3) was between the extreme rich and the poor Families were at the center of the colonial economy African Slavery and British Freedom Slavery in the British Empire th • Slavery was widespread in the 18 century British Empire • Products from the mainland colonies began to take on a heightened significance • 7.7 millionAfricans transported to the New World colonies from 1492-1820 The Slave Trade • Atlantic Triangular trade system moved slaves, colonial products, and British goods between continents • ManyAfrican leaders helped in the slave trade • Middle Passage was horrendous for the slaves • Slave numbers in the mainland colonies were small at first, but steadily increased o 1770: 20% living in colonies wereAfrican Slave Systems on the Mainland • Chesapeake – tobacco, largest concentration of slaves, smaller plantations, no task system • S.C. and Georgia (1733) – Rice, developed much like VA, but larger plantations and a task system • New England and the Middle Colonies – No plantations, but slavery did exist Adaptation and Resistance • Slaves in the colonies came from all overAfrica, did not see themselves as one cohesive group • AfricanAmerican culture also developed differently in different groups o V.A.: better climate=better chance to reproduce; slaves were strongly influenced by white culture • Fewer slaves; more freedom o S.C. & Georgia: slaves were less influenced  Coastal: language mixed  City: culture mixed • Florida was safe haven • Stono Rebellion, 1739: Slaves in S.C. seized weapons and marched toward FL • Rebellions planned at Churches British Ideas of Freedom  British began to see themselves as the upholders of freedom in the world, and much of this was tied to the idea of Protestantism  Ideas of liberty and words associated with freedom became more commonplace amongst all members of the British Empire  Cato’s Letters and John Locke’s Two Treaties of Gov. greatly influenced British colonist’s ideas about freedom o Men with standings have a voice in Gov. British Freedoms in the Colonies • Many more men in theAmerican colonies participated in elections than men in Britain • No votes for women, NativeAmericans,AfricanAmericans, the poor; still have royally-appointed positions, and the wealthy controlled much of the power • Government in the colonies became collaboration between British-appointed governors and elected assemblies Discussing Politics in the Colonies • Political discussion outside of Gov. became more frequent o Common people o Especially in cities (bars) • Many male colonists were able to read and printing presses were very common in the British colonies o Censored • Presses was very limited in what it could print; common people not allowed to openly criticize Gov. • Trial of John Peter Zenger, 1735: German-born printer in NY printed negative things about the governor o Not guilty • The Enlightenment in England greatly influenced theAmerican colonies (scientific inquiry and reason) o Diasm – God left the world to his people but God created it; natural disasters were because of the earth The Great Awakening and the Battle for the Continental The Great Awakening • Church leaders became concerned with colonists’internet in wordly affairs; around the 1730s, revivalism sparked the GreatAwakening o John Edwards, George Whitfield o More about feelings/emotion/spirituality o Less about science o More focus on being reborn and asking for forgiveness • Switched from an elect to a focus on salvation through repenting and changing course in life o Separation of church and Gov. • Spread ideas about of freedom and individualism o Printing Press o Messages well received among poor Remember Spain and France • Spain had accumulated large amounts of territory in NorthAmerica, but their settlements were spread out, had few colonists • Spain tried to expand its empire, find more settlers, and est. better relations with NativeAmericans • The French were more of a threat to the British territories; expanded throughout Canada and down the Mississippi into the Gulf o Mobile, 1702; New Orleans, 1718 Ohio Company and Seven Year’s War • The area west of British settlement was a contested area, a “middle ground” that included a mix of British, French, and Indian territories • 1749: V.A. land grant for the Ohio Comp. o Not many white colonists (lots of NativeAmericans/Untamed land) o P.A. worried about borders o French worried about their territory • Seven Years’War (1754-1763) was a battle for territory in NorthAmerica o George Washington gets his start by leading troops to push out na o French team up with NativeAmericans o Britain raised money to bring British Navy to defeat French  British take over land • Peace of Paris, 1763: Britain gets Canada and FL American Revolution Effects of Seven Years’ War • Britain tried to control the trade of colonies but colonists often ignored • After war, Britain was in debt, and imposed stricter restrictions on the colonies • Implemented higher taxes; colonists were angry about the Proclamation line of 1763 o Britain cracked down smuggling New Taxes and the Issue of Representation • Sugar Act: lowered taxes, but increased the prosecution of smuggling • RevenueAct: goods shipped through England • CurrencyAct: no printing money o Only use British money • StampAct: anything printed had to carry a purchased stamp • “No taxation without representation” Response to Stamp Act • StampAct Congress (1765): refused to be taxed when they had not consented • Used words and ideas of “liberty” and the “rights” of Englishmen to argue for representation • Demonstrations, parades, and political symbolism became more popular (Sons of Liberty) • StampAct repealed, but replaced with similar act o DeclaratoryAct: Britain still has the right to tax Non-Importation and the Boston Massacre • TownshendAct: taxes back on trade, used to pay colonial governors and judges • Homemade American goods = resistance to British materialism • Boston Massacre (1770) left 5Americans dead by British soldiers o Heightened tensions o CrispusAttucks –white, black, and NativeAmerican o Non-importation movement fell apart, most Townshend taxes were ended, and troops were removed from Boston Boston Tea Party and Intolerable Acts • Boston Tea Party (1773): continued refusal by colonists to pay high taxes on imported items • IntolerableActs (1774); closed Boston’s Port gave more power to Massachusetts’ royal governor, and placed soldiers in private homes • QuebecAct: extended the Canadian border into Ohio land The American Revolution 1774- 1783 1 Steps toward Independence • Delegates from 12 colonies met in Philadelphia, First Continental Congress (1774) • Not a break from Britain, but begins a shift of power dynamics from crown to local people • Colonists continued to speak in the language of “liberty” and “freedom” The Battle Begins • Lexington and Concord, Mass • Local men enlisted in militias to fight against British oppression o Shot heard around the world • Second Continental Congress (May 1775): print money, build and (George Washington) • Desire for independence from Britain differed along regional, sociological, economic lines o Dunmore’s Proclamation: any slave that runs away to the British army will be granted freedom Common Sense and a Declaration • Common Sense (Thomas Paine): whyAmerica should break with England, benefits of Independence • July 2-4, 1776: U.S. declared independent by Congress; Declaration of Independence approved o Thomas Jefferson  Slave trade was taken out • No longer about “rights of Englishmen,” but the God-given rights of all men Fighting for Independence • On paper, British were a superior force against unorganizedAmericans • ButAmericans had some fighting experience and, more importantly, a cause o 1/20 White males died fighting in the Revolution • Free and enslaved blacks played a major role; fight for American independence and personal freedom Fighting in the Early Years • Cat and mouse game between General Washington (US) and Sir William Howe (GB) • Dec-Jan (1776): surprise attacks in NJ, crossing the Delaware • Battle of Saratoga, Oct. 1777: surrender of a second British army, led by General John Burgoyne • French and Spanish joined the war on theAmerican side o Treaty of Amity and Commerce (1778) The End is near • In the South, British tried to turn the colonists against each other • 1780: ContinentalArmy, colonial leadership struggling • 1781: addition of French forces, a few Americans victories o Cowpens, SC; Guilford Courthouse, NC • Oct 1781: Cornwallis surrendered, British gave up • Sept 1783: Treaty of Paris Internal Battles, During and After Revolution Creating the U.S. • American Revolution was a fight for independence, a battle for European empires, and a new nation • Compared to Britain: more property owners, no Gov. based on a monarchy, and no national church Power in Politics • Many debates focused on property-ownership as a requirement for political power (especially PA) • New constitutions were drawn up in each state, defined power differently i
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