ADSC 3130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Rodent, Miscarriage, Lysine

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Animal Biotech: Lecture 2 Notes 8/17/17
What are stem cells?
o Multipotent (developmentally restricted) or pluripotent cell types (can turn into
any cell in the body)
o Immortal
o Highly proliferated
o Asymmetrical divisions
Most cells in the body doesn’t work with asymmetrical division
Pluripotency is a unique state.
o How do you know whether your pluripotent stem cell is pluripotent?
Examine morphology (does it look like the cell type of entry)
If it’s a stem cell, it will have a high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio aka
they have a giant nucleus.
Large nucleoli which is little regions within the nucleus where
ribosomal RNA is transcribed
You can determine if your stem cell is pluripotent by testing to see
if it is capable of contributing to every tissue type in a live animal
Gene expression (does it express genes (mRNA) that is consistent with a
stem cell profile)
These are the 3 proteins that must be on to be a pluripotent stem
cell: Oct4, Sox2, Nanog
These are a special kind, they are transcription factors which is
where a gene is transcribed into mRNA
They regulate what genes are being expressed. They will go to
genes of interest and activated them.
For gene expression, you can perform Rt-PCR (polymerase chain
reaction), Quantitative RT-PCR, RNA-sequencing
Different types of RNA: mRNA, tRNA, miRNA, shRNA. For our
class, we are usually talking about mRNA.
Protein expression
This is done to further define.
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