ANTH 1102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Shawnee National Forest, Institute For Operations Research And The Management Sciences

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1. Describe the Williams Site archaeologically, and talk about the Williams family
culture/lifestyle.
located in the Shawnee Hills of Pope County Illinois (Figure 1), was a loose knit African
American farming community that existed from around 1840-1920's
it was established primarily by former slaves who were emancipated in Tennessee
the community consisted of several farmsteads, a church, and a cemetery
the residents were primarily farmers
many of the graves in the cemetery are unmarked but have nice headstones
Miller Grove was eventually abandoned- their farms become unprofitable
The land was eventually purchased by the government as part of the Shawnee National
Forest
Harrison and Lucinda Miller were some of the original settlers
Children in Miller Grove were required to attend school and were able to read and write,
unlike most other Southern Illinois communities
Historical Documentation Explanation:
Tax records: show the types of items an individual possesses and how much these items
can be taxed (table 1)
Production of Agriculture Schedules: allows us to see what type of crops and livestock
individuals are choosing to raise, as well as how they are maintaining their property
oAbout how the land is being improved
oWhat they are growing
The Production of Agriculture Schedule: informs us about what a family is producing to
sell
oSuch as butter, milk, honey, and homemade items
The Census: lets us know who is living in a household, including the farm hands
oTrend of single young me (18-30) living with their neighbors and working as
farmhands
oThey often leave their families and turn into farmhands
oAlso tracks people’s births and deaths in a general way
o1850: 7 families a total population of 32
o1900: 20 families a total population of 108
o1920: 8 families a total population of 21
o1930: residents are gone
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Document Summary

Describe the williams site archaeologically, and talk about the williams family culture/lifestyle. located in the shawnee hills of pope county illinois (figure 1), was a loose knit african. American farming community that existed from around 1840-1920"s it was established primarily by former slaves who were emancipated in tennessee the community consisted of several farmsteads, a church, and a cemetery the residents were primarily farmers. Many of the graves in the cemetery are unmarked but have nice headstones. Miller grove was eventually abandoned- their farms become unprofitable. The land was eventually purchased by the government as part of the shawnee national. Harrison and lucinda miller were some of the original settlers. Children in miller grove were required to attend school and were able to read and write, unlike most other southern illinois communities. Tax records: show the types of items an individual possesses and how much these items can be taxed (table 1)

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