CBIO 2200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Coronal Plane, Median Plane, Anatomical Plane
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Introduction to the Human Body
Organization of the body, Anatomical position, Sectional planes of
the body, Directional terms, Organ systems, Body cavities,
Regions of the body, Regions of the abdomen
Physiology is the study of organ function and interaction.
Physiology may be studied from the molecular level to the
organism level. The hierarchical levels of organization of the
human body from the smallest structure to the largest structure are
molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organism.
The body’s largest organ system is the integumentary system,
which consists of skin and its associated structures. The surface
tissue of skin is a barrier that protects internal structures and fluids
from potentially harmful microorganisms and other toxins.
Section 1.3.1- Organization
Anatomical position is used as a standard frame of reference for
describing the relationship of anatomical structures, anomalies,
injuries and pathologies during dissection or treatment of a patient.
When a person or cadaver is in anatomical position, he or she is
standing erect, with feet flat on the floor, arms at the sides, palms
and eyes facing forward, eyes open. Descriptions of left and right
always refer to the subject’s left or right.
Anatomical planes are imaginary flat surfaces passing through the
body. Anatomical sections are anatomical views in which the body
is cut on a plane. There are 4 planes: coronal or frontal, sagittal,
transverse or horizontal, and oblique.
• The frontal, or coronal plane divides the body into front and
back portions (or anterior and posterior).
• The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves.
A midsagittal plane divides the body equally into left and
right halves, while a parasagittal plane falls off center of the
mid-line of the body.
• A transverse or horizontal plane divides the body into upper
and lower portions (superior and inferior).
• And oblique plane passes through the body at an oblique
Section 1.6.4- Body Planes
Directional terms are terms used to describe the location of one
body part relative to another. Useful in referring to an injury,
disease, or pain in that area. Useful in naming bones or muscles.
Distal and proximal are only applied to structures on the limbs.
Superior (or cranial)- above or higher than another part of the body
Inferior (or caudal)- lower or below another part of the body
Anterior (or ventral)- towards the front of the body
Posterior (or dorsal)- towards the back of the body
Superficial- closer to surface of body
Deep- further from the surface of the body (underneath superficial)
Proximal- nearer to the point of attachment or trunk of the body
Distal- further from the point of attachment or trunk of the body
Medial- closer to the middle of the body
Lateral- further from the middle of the body