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GEOG 2110L (50)
Lecture

GEOGRAPHY.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 2110L
Professor
David Stanley
Semester
Spring

Description
GEOGRAPHY: the study and analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of phenomena on the Earth's surface, and the underlying processes which cause the observed pattern ** the spatial science of areas, natural systems, & man-made systems. Five Fundamental Themes of Geography: developed in the 1980's by the National Geographic Society and numerous geographers in the U.S. Location : both absolute and relative; the spatial component of Geography; being concerned with where things are Place : characteristics that make a location unique Movement : the what, how, where and why of the diffusion of phenomena across the Earth's surface Regions : regional science or study; studying all the various phenomena of a particular area of the world EX: regional study of NorthAmerica, orAfrica, or the S.E. United States Human-Earth Relationships : the impacts of the environment on people and their impact on the environment; the relationship between human societies & their environment EX: the impact of deforestation on a region and its people OR the relationship between the environment and technological development 3 Main Sub-disciplines or areas in Geography Physical Geography: Biogeography, Geomorphology, Climatology, Hydrogeography, Soils geography Human/Cultural Geography: Economic, Political, Historical, Population, Urban, etc. Techniques: Cartography, Remote Sensing,Aerial Photography, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) ** in this course we are concerned with Physical Geography. * As an area of study, Physical Geography is quite old. ** Eratosthenes, a Greek who lived from 275 to 195 B.C., is considered one of the first "geographers". * measured the polar circumference of the Earth * became an accomplished cartographer or map-maker * developed the idea of environmental zones based on temperature (T°) ** Other famous early geographers: * Greek scholars: Aristole, Hipparchus * Roman scholars: Strabo, Ptolemy * Muslim scholars: Edrisi, ibn-Batuta * Chinese scholars: Phei Hsiu (Chinese geographical study has been dated as far back as the 5 cent. B.C.) * German scholars: Bernhardus Varenius (1622-1650) * Alexander von Humboldt, (1769-1859), considered by some the "father" of modern physical geography * traveled and studied throughout theAmericas, and Siberia * credited with bringing "scientific study" to the field of physical geography (Look over Insert 1.1 on pg. 6-7) ** More recent important geographers: * Vladimir Köppen (1846-1940), developed the Köppen Classification System for climates based on vegetation, temperature & precipitation patterns (pg. 257) * Alfred Wegener (1880-1930), developed the theory of Continental Drift which later became part of the theory of Plate Tectonics (pgs. 314) * Charles Thornthwaite (1899-1963), developed another climate classification system based on principles of water balance, precipitat
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