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Lecture 3

PHIL 2020 Lecture 3: PHIL 2020 Unit 5 Lecture 3

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University of Georgia
PHIL 2020
Sean Meslar

PHIL 2020 Unit 5: Lecture 3 Translations Weve now covered all of the points necessary to translate basic arguments. Lets try returning to our central example. Socrates is a human. o Hs All humans are mortal (x) (Hx Mx) o Therefore, Socrates is a mortal o Ms No one is evil o (x)Ex Some logicians are bad at logic o (x)(Lx Bx) Not all animals are cats or dogs o (x)(Ax (Cx v Dx)) Some cats who arent black are unlucky o (x)(Cx (Bx Ux)) All dogs and cats are animals o (x)((Dx v Cx) Ax) Anything enjoyable is either fattening or immoral o (x)(Ex (Fx v Ix)) If there are no necessary beings, then there are no contingent beings o ((x)Nx (x)Cx) If everyone takes the day off, then someone will be upset o ((x)Dx (x)Ux) A Puzzle Consider the following question: Is the present King of France bald? Yes is clearly the wrong answer because there is no present King of France No doesnt seem to work exactly right, either. Its not that the present King of France is not bald; rather, there is just no present King of France. A formal logic diagnosis If we were to look at the formal translations of each of the possible answers, what we would have? The intuitive translations of these are: Bk and ~Bk, where Bx = x is bald, and k= the present King of France The natural reading is to treat the present King of France as a constant, since the referent uses the definite article the. Russells Translation
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