POLS 1101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: United States House Committee On Rules, Pocket Veto, Body Party

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Congress (Chapter 10): Study Guide
The Constitution and Congress:
First branch
Enumerated powers: regulating commerce, coining money, raising and supporting
armies, creating the courts, establishing post offices and roads, declaring war, and levying
taxes
Necessary and proper clause
Bicameralism: the system of having two chambers within one legislative body (House and
Senate)
Trustee: a member of Congress who represents the constituents’ interests while also taking into
account national, collective, and moral concerns that sometimes cause the member to vote
against the preference of a majority of constituents
Delegate: a member of congress who loyally represents constituents’ direct interests
Politico models of representation:
Descriptive representation: when a member of congress shares the characteristics (i.e.
gender, race, religion, or ethnicity) of his or her constituents
Substantive representation: when a member of Congress represents constituents’’
interests and policy concerns
Politico: a member of congress who acts as a delegate on issues that constituents care
about and as a trustee on more-complex or less-salient issues
Jurisdictions and candidate requirements for House and Senate
Rules for congressional elections
Electoral connection: the idea that congressional behavior is centrally motivated by members’
desire for reelection
Redistricting: redrawing the geographic boundaries of legislative districts (every 10 years to
ensure that districts remain roughly equal in population)
Gerrymandering: attempts to use the redistricting process for political advantage
Packing and cracking
Racial redistricting: race cannot be the predominant factor in drawing congressional
district lines, but it can be one of the factors (i.e. North Caroline plan
Incumbency advantage: the relative infrequency with which members of Congress are defeated
in their attempts for reelection
Party leaders in Congress: elected on straight party-line votes (i.e. Speaker of the House)
Role of parties in Congress: provide a team framework that allows members to work together
for broadly beneficial goals
Reflect the individualism of the institution
Committee system: exists within House and Senate
Standing Committees: a permanent part of the House or Senate structure, holding more
importance and authority than other committees
o Draft legislation and oversee the implementation of the laws they pass
Select Committees: created to address a specific issue for one or two terms
o Collect information, provide policy options, and draw attention to a given issue
Joint Committees: contain members of both the House and Senate but have limited
authority
o Gather information and provides estimates
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Conference Committees: temporary committees created to negotiate differences
between the house and Senate versions of a piece of legislation that has passed through
both chambers
Committee markup: one of the steps through which a bill becomes a law, in which the final
wording of the bill is determined
Role of House Rules Committee: governs the nature of debate on a bill
Closed rules: no amendments
Open rules: related amendments
Modified rules: some amendments but not others
Cloture: a procedure through which the senate can limit the amount of time spent debating a bill
(cutting off a filibuster), if a supermajority of 60 senators agree
Filibuster: a tactic used by senators to block a bill by continuing to hold the floor and speak-
under the Senate rule of unlimited debate- until the bill’s supporters back down
Presidential veto and veto override:
Can veto a bill within 10 days by sending it back to the chamber where it originated with
a statement of objections
Pocket veto: automatic death of a bill passed by the House and senate when the president
fails to sign the bill in the last 10 days of a legislative session
Senate and House can override veto with 2/3 vote
How much support needed to pass/defeat legislation: 2/3 majority vote
Differences between the House and Senate:
House
Senate
435 members
100 members
2 year terms
6 year terms; 2/3 of its members return every
year without facing reelection
House Rules Committee
Individualistic body
Party dominated
Unlimited debate
Open amendment process
Not party dominated
Congressional oversight: overseeing the implementation of a law to make sure the bureaucracy
interprets it as Congress intended
Power of the purse: congress cuts off funds if they think an agency is not implementing
their programs correctly
Hearings and investigations: use of media to focus attention on problems within the
bureaucracy or on issues that have been overlooked
“Advice and consent”: constitutional responsibility to provide “advice and consent” on
presidential appointments and approval of treaties
impeachment of the president, vice president, other civil officers, or federal judges
Class Notes
Overview on Congress
o House and Senate occupy the center stage in national policymaking
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Document Summary

Enumerated powers: regulating commerce, coining money, raising and supporting armies, creating the courts, establishing post offices and roads, declaring war, and levying taxes. Bicameralism: the system of having two chambers within one legislative body (house and. Trustee: a member of congress who represents the constituents" interests while also taking into account national, collective, and moral concerns that sometimes cause the member to vote against the preference of a majority of constituents. Delegate: a member of congress who loyally represents constituents" direct interests. Descriptive representation: when a member of congress shares the characteristics (i. e. gender, race, religion, or ethnicity) of his or her constituents. Substantive representation: when a member of congress represents constituents"" interests and policy concerns. Politico: a member of congress who acts as a delegate on issues that constituents care about and as a trustee on more-complex or less-salient issues. Jurisdictions and candidate requirements for house and senate.

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