POLS 3700 Lecture Notes - Drug Enforcement Administration, United States District Court

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-Social scientists examine many aspects of criminal justice, including the causes of crime, the
effectiveness of crime control strategies, and efficiency in police procedures.
-Criminal justice is based on the concept of federalism, in which power is divided between a
central (national) government and regional (state) governments.
-Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central
(national) government and regional (state) governments.
-Because of federalism, no single level of government is solely responsible for the
administration of cj
-Criminal Justice in a Federal System
-America has a federal government (national and state control) created by Constitution
-Both the national and state systems pass/enforce laws, try criminal cases, and punish
offenders
-Criminal enforcement is NOT an explicit power of the Constitution
-The US gov’s structure was created in 1789 with the ratification of the US Constitution.
-The Constitution gave the national government certain powers like raising an army, coining
money, and making treaties with foreign countries. But the states retained all other powers,
including police power.
-Federal criminal cases are tried in US District courts, which are federal courts, and there are
federal prisons throughout the nation. The vast majority of crimes are defined by state laws
rather than federal laws.
-Both the national and state systems of cj enforce laws, try criminal cases, and punish
offenders, but their activities differ in scope and purpose.
-Federal CJ vs State CJ Systems
-The federal criminal justice system, while it covers the entire country, is a relatively
small proportion of criminal prosecutions
-The typical federal case is VERY different from the average state case
-Some state crimes don’t have a federal equivalent (DUI, Domestic Violence)
-Often federal crimes are high level or invoke violations of a specific federal
offense (immigration)
-Although most crimes are defined by state laws, various national criminal laws have been
enacted by Congress and are enforced by the FBI, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the
Secret Service, and other federal agencies.
-The report of the US President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of
Justice emphasized the need for greater federal involvement in crime control at the local level
and urged that federal grants to be directed to the states to support criminal justice initiatives
-Disputes over jurisdiction may occur when an offense violates both state and federal laws.
-The most significant expansion of the federal government occurred with the creation of a new
Department of Homeland Security through the consolidation of border security, intelligence, and
emergency-response agencies from other departments of government.
-Because both state and federal systems operate in the US, criminal justice here is highly
decentralized.
-These issues can have their greatest impact at the local level
-Factors that caused the expansion of federal laws and involvement in cj
1. Expansion of criminal activities across state borders
2. Efforts to combat terrorism
3. Cyber attacks
4. International criminal activities
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Document Summary

Social scientists examine many aspects of criminal justice, including the causes of crime, the effectiveness of crime control strategies, and efficiency in police procedures. Criminal justice is based on the concept of federalism, in which power is divided between a central (national) government and regional (state) governments. Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central (national) government and regional (state) governments. Because of federalism, no single level of government is solely responsible for the administration of cj. America has a federal government (national and state control) created by constitution. Both the national and state systems pass/enforce laws, try criminal cases, and punish offenders. Criminal enforcement is not an explicit power of the constitution. The us gov"s structure was created in 1789 with the ratification of the us constitution. The constitution gave the national government certain powers like raising an army, coining money, and making treaties with foreign countries.

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