The rise of populism, 1990-2018: populism ! political approach that strives to appeal to ordinary people who feel that their concerns are disregarded by established elite groups. Nothing should constrain will and interests of the true people. 3 ways populists frame us vs. them conflict. Native members of the nation-state hard-working, honest members of working class, which may transcend national boundaries hard-working, honest victims of state run by special interests. The others non-natives, criminals, ethnic and religious minorities, cosmopolitan elites big business, capital owners, foreign or imperial forces that prop up an international capitalist system political elites who represent prior regime. Themes emphasis on religious traditionalism, law and order, national sovereignty, migrants as enemies. Populism on the rise anti-capitalism, working-class solidarity, foreign business interests as enemies, often joined with anti-americanism purging the state from corruption, strong leadership to promote reforms. Around 20 countries governed by populist leader in 2018. Anti-establishment populism does not account for increase in populism.