ANTH 2303 Lecture 8: 9-14-2016 Chiefdoms Continued and The State

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9/14/16
ANTH 2303
Chiefdoms Continued … and The State
Political specializations of paramount chief “family”
o Paramount chief
o Chief priest
o Talking chief
o War chief
o Chief’s jeweler
o Chief’s tailor
o Sandal maker or whateve
The State
o Larger, 25,000-1,000,000 people or more
o Territory is much larger
Because it’s larger, there are more varied environmental zones, more
ecologically diverse
o Economic specialization specialized mode of production, not everyone did the
same thing, many farmers/food producers to account for the other specialized
workers not producing food
o Intensive agriculture land (agricultural fields) is continuously planted, this also
makes up for the specialized workers who aren’t farming
Archaeological correlates:
Plow
Terraces
Irrigation
Archaeological specialists: peasants (lol)
o Market central physical location where goods are exchanged
o Kinship relationships are done away with and are replaced with individual
relationships
o There are the people who own the land and the people who work the land
o In chiefdoms and Big Man Society, leaders have a responsibility to take care of
their subjects, because they are all kin, family, lineage-mates
This is not the case in states
o Bureaucracy institution for governing the state’s politics and economy
o Taxation while redistribution in chiefdoms takes surplus, taxation takes your
resource base, earnings NOT surplus, no such thing as surplus money
o Standing military specialization for war
Archaeological correlates:
armory
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