ANTH 2303 Lecture 23: 9-28-2016 Natural Formation Processes

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ANTH 2303
9/28/2016
Natural Formation Processes
These are the actions of nature that impact cultural formation processes
o And of course the cultural formation processes create the archaeological context
4 categories of natural formation processes
o Nature
o Effects
o Duration
o Scale
NATURE
o Physical gravity => erosion, meteorological effects, heat, waves and wind,
sedimentation
o Chemical
ph acid and base reaction
oxidization - rust
o Biological
Bacteria they act on organic material
Aerobic requires oxygen
Anaerobic does not require oxygen
Fungi
Bioturbation earthworms, tree roots, dogs, ants, gophers
EFFECTS
o Additive preserving the AC
o Subtractive destroying the AC
o Fossilization or diagenesis
o Diagenesis: the chemical replacement of compounds in the artifact
o STP Standard Temperature Pressure
DURATION
o How long have the natural processes been in action
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