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Lecture 4

HDFS 1300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Matriarchy, Sex Assignment, Margaret Mead

Educational Psychology
Course Code
HDFS 1300
Erica F Jordan

of 5
1. Ch. 4 HDFS the role of gender 2.9.16
Lecture guiding questions
oWhat are the differences between sex and gender?
oWhat influences a person’s gender?
oWhat is sexual orientation?
Sex-biological differences
oBased on differences in sexual organs, hormone levels
(specifically testosterone and estrogen), chromosomes
oSex role-attitudes and behavior expectations determined by
Ex: differences in abilities base on biology such as the
ability of most women to carry a child and give birth
Gender-societal practices
oNot based biologically; can vary based on culture and society
Gender roles-attitudes and activities that are considered
acceptable for males and females based on culture
Ex: type of dress, who can be a homemaker, who can
fight on the front lines of battle CAN CHANGE OVER
oMargret Mead experiment pg 64 in book
Sex differences and diversity
XY chromosomes
XXY chromosomes (Klienfelter syndrome)
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higher levels of testosterone in comparison to females,
lower pitch in voice, often more body hair
male sexual organs
often greater upper body strength due to body
XX chromosomes
XXX chromosomes (triple X syndrome; trisomy X
X chromosome-turner syndrome
Higher levels of estrogen in comparison to men
Higher prolactin levels easily induce lactation
Female sexual organs
Ability to become pregnant and give birth
What influences a person’s gender?
Cultural norms
oCulture-everything produced by a group of humans; including
behavior, art & beliefs; what must be believed or known to be
oNorms-expectations for appropriate behavior based on one’s
o*every culture has different norms that include difference
expectations for males and females
examples of cultural norms related to gender
oearly as 24 hrs. after birth, based on the child’s gender;
dressing them in pink or blue and how they decorate the
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even if the child’s parents have decided to be gender
neutral, the child will get other influences from outside
(daycare, friends)
othe toy aisle
pink aisle-girls have more toys that are domestic based.
Cooking, raising babies ect.
oHear messages from other people-idea of different expectations
for later in life are getting to the child
What is Androgyny?
Most people exhibit both male and female characteristics but one
People with androgynous gender roles exhibit roughly equal numbers
of both male and female characteristics
oEx in the media:
Calvin klein- used models with androgynous characteristics
in their styling ads
Chanel- same as cK
Members of some 89’s rock bands-wearing makeup and
long hair
Because they are rooted in culture and society, gender norms can change
Changes throughout history
Changes based on societal necessity
Changes based on changing attitudes and equal opportunity
Some changes can prove quite complicated
oEx of how gender norms can change
TV shows back in the 50’s
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