KIN 3306 Lecture 3: Week 3

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Week 3
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
o Work together to regulate bodily processes
o Pituitary is located at the base of the hypothalamus in the brain
Divided into anterior/posterior lobes
o Hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary gland to stimulate the release or inhibit the
release of a particular hormone
o Hormones are either tropic or non-tropic
Tropic act on another endocrine organ and stimulate the release of another
hormone from that organ
Non-tropic act directly on a specific tissue to elicit changes or regulate activity
Hormones released by the anterior pituitary growth hormone, thyroid-
stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating
hormone, lutenizing hormone, prolactin
Hormones released by the posterior pituitary antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
o Located in the neck/throat area
Parathyroid glands are located on the posterior side of the thyroid gland
Release parathyroid hormone
o Regulates blood calcium level
o Regulated metabolic rate through hormones T3 & T4
Work with other hormones to improve protein and enzyme synthesis, cellular
uptake, metabolism of glucose, gluconeogenesis and lipid mobilization
o Releases Calcitonin
Regulates blood calcium concentration
Adrenal Glands
o Located above the kidneys
o Medulla inner portion
Responsible for producing epinephrine and norepinephrine (catecholamines)
Part of the sympathetic nervous system
Increase HR & SV
Initiates vasoconstriction
Stimulates glycogenolysis/lipolysis
o Cortex outer portion
Releases mineralocorticoids
Aldosterone
o Regulates plasma volume
Releases glucocorticoids
Cortisol
o Mobilization of glucose from the liver
o Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue
Releases small amounts of gonadocorticoids, sex hormones
Pancreas and Gonads
o Pancreas insulin and glucagon
Work together to maintain and regulate blood glucose concentration
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