BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Aminoacyl-Trna, Polysome, Dna Replication

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Protein synthesis- the process or using instructions carried on gene to create proteins. Several steps are involved and require both dna and rna. Gene- a sequence of dna that encodes a protein. Protein- a large molecule composed of amino acids. Protein synthesis and gene expression- from gene to protein. Gene expression- process by which dna genotype leads to phenotype. Transcription is the base by base copying of a section of the dna molecule. Transcription produces messenger rna (mrna) and other in mrna. Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide, using the information in mrna. In prokaryotes, translation of mrna can begin before transcription has finished because there is no nucleus. In a eukaryotic cell, the nuclear envelope separates transcription from translation. Eukaryotic mrna is modified by rna processing. Enzymes in the eukaryotic nucleus modify pre mrna (rna processing) before the genetic messages are dispatched to the cytoplasm. Primary transcript-initial rna transcript before any processing .

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