BIO 123 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Selective Breeding, Aureus, Silt

55 views5 pages

For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
8-10 million different types of species live on Earth
About 1% of overall species to have ever existed
Extraordinary great diversity of life
I) Unity of Life
Unity despite diversity
1) Diversity of life
2) Share unity characteristics of life
3) Organisms suited to live under certain conditions/environments
Shared similarities
Basic biochemistry - share macromolecules
Store info in DNA form
All consist of cells
Cells always have phospholipid bilayer plasma membrane
Darwin - descent with modifications (evolution) by natural selection → unity of life
despite diversity
Explains: organisms suited for environments
Theory of Evolution based on Darwin’s ideas
Natural selection - survival + reproduce of phenotypic + traits
Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE) - species are fixed (dont change) based on scale where humans
are on top
Organisms ranked on complexity - humans = most complex
Didnt see change - belief stayed
Change came b/c of geology of rocks/landscape
James Hutton (1726 - 1797) - geologic features explained
Gradual mechanisms (gradualism)
Incorporated gradualism
Believed world was worlder than 300 millions years b/c geology
Hutton + Lyell gradualism → influence of Darwin thinkings
Darwin reasoned: slow + subtle process → substantial biological change over
long period of time
II) How Fossils Form
Sedimentary rock - formed by large bodies of water
Layers of sediment on bottom of water body accumulate
ex) silt + mud → create deep compressed layers
Layers can be dated - deeper layer = earlier time
Layer = stratum
Layers = strata
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Process:
1) Organism dies in body of water - body is covered by water
2) Body then covered by layers of sediment from being under water
3) Soft tissue decays - bone/shell filled with minerals
Fossils - remains/traces of an organism from the past
Patentology - study of living organisms from the past
George Cuvier (1769 - 1832) - father of paleontology
Older the stratum - more dissimilarities from current life forms
Layer to the next - some species appear others disappear
**challenged evolution: stata = catastrophic events (catastrophic)
Catastrophic - belief of catastrophic events leading to extinction of species
Fossils show gradual change of species over time
III) Evolution
Jean-Baptise Lamarck (1744-1829) - organisms gradually change over generations
(evolve)
Evolution adaptations of organisms to their environment
JBL - evolution driven by organisms “inner need”
Developed 1st hypothesis of evolution (50 yrs. Before Darwin)
Principal of Use and Disuse
Body parts are used extensively become larger and stronger, while those
are not used deteriorate
Principle of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
An organism could pass modifications to offspring
Hypothesis: wrong, unsupported by evidence
ex) bonsai trees are trained to grow as a dwarf but offspring are not
Darwin proposed by mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence
Darwin developed revolutionary proposal influenced by work of others + travels
Theory of Evolution by natural selection currently accepted b/c not proven wrong
- idea has been reinforced by substantial evidence
Galapagos Islands - new 1831 -1836 group of volcanic islands - isolated from S. America
Islands vary even though close proximity to main island
Habitats: dry, wet, lowland, highland
Each island illustrated by organisms with adaptations to particular habitat
Inhabited with organisms resemble those found on mainland with special
adaptations
Darwin hypo: animals + plants species from S.America colonized Galapagos
diversified into different species adapt to new environments
Darwin and Lamarck adaption but thought natural selection
Adaption to environment + orginal new species as closely related process
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class