SOC 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Social Fact, Postmodernism, Industrial Revolution

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Lecture Notes
Tuesday, January 31, 2017
3:11 PM
Sociology- the scientific study of human social life, groups, social structures, institutions, and
societies
Dyad- romantic couple
Some institutions decide what constitutes another institution
o Government
o Economy
o Religion
o Family
Sociology shows us that aspects of life we consider natural or take for granted are influenced by
social and historical forces
Public issues indicate structural blame
o These issues are experienced personally, but impacting many
Rules and expectations make up groups (institutions) that are sometimes fought to change
expectations through social movements
Levels of analysis:
o Micro-level: beliefs or values guide behavior which is experienced and altered through
interaction (individuals and small groups)
o Meso-level: helps explain relationships among institutions, organizations, and large groups
o Macro-level: helps explain how larger forces shape everyday life, and is usually used in a
global or national context
Durkheim- aspects of social life shape individual action (social facts, or, institutions)
o People used to explain things with religion, but now we explain them with science
o Stable agricultural societies > shared worldview > organic solidarity
Stability comes from beliefs, rituals, and shared values
o Rapid change seen as problematic
o Institutions have functions that when carried out well influence success in other institutions
Marx- the economy influences social change
o Brought upon by seeing the misery and exploitation of the worker during the early industrial
revolution
o Focus on economic conflict, not stability
o Merchant class overthrew the landed aristocracy
o Fear of the workers overthrowing the capitalist
o Bourgeoise is the capitalist, and the Proletariat is the worker
o Wanted revolution
o Power comes from resources and the ability to utilize them
Weber- culture and economics both influence social change
o If you don't work, you are a sinner
o Christian-Protestant work ethic helps develop capitalism
o Uses financial success to determine whether they will go to heaven or hell
o Power came from who controlled the workplace, not just who owned it
o Power comes from a high position in a bureaucracy
Martineau- translates Comte's work into English and studies women in sociology
DuBois- began the study of race in America
o Capitalism leads to inferior position of blacks
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