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Lecture 9

ANTH 103 Lecture 9: ANTH 103 9. Gender

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ANTH 103
A Lee

9. Gender 2016 12 10 10:45 Sex The biological difference between male and female Gender A cultural construction that makes biological and physical differences between male and female into socially meaningful categories Cultural construction The idea that gender characteristics are the result of historical, economic, of gender and political forces acting within each culture Twospirit An alternative gender role in native North America (formerly called berdache) Hijra An alternative gender role in India conceptualized as neither man nor woman Hijab What Muslim women wear over their heads as modest covering Initiation A formal ritual process that moves individuals from child status to adult status Gender role The cultural expectations of men and women in a particular society, including the division of labor Gender The ways in which gendered activities and attributes are differentially valued and hierarchy related to the distribution of resources, prestige, and power in a society PrivatePublic A gender system in which womens status is lowered by their almost exclusive dichotomy cultural identification with the home and children, whereas men are identified with public, prestigious, economic, and political roles Feminist Focuses on different culture variability in the meaning of gender anthropology Male prestige Bravery, strength, fortitude, creativity, and intellect, heroic, aggressive, controls women Ways in which culture influences gender Gender is established by social norms and values rather than by biology Varies from culture to culture How a culture views each gender influences their roles and part in society How alternative genderings can give insight into the relationship between sex and gender Sex and gender are completely separate Sex is biological whereas gender is a cultural construction that fits the differences between male and female into a category How masculinity is constructed in different cultures The behaviors that constitute malenessmanliness vary from place to place
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