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Lecture 2

MCB 244 Lecture 2: MCB 244 Chapter 2 Slides

Molecular and Cell Biology
Course Code
MCB 244
C Brown

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MCB 244 Chapter 2 Slides
Chapter 2: Atoms, Ions and Molecules
Learning Objectives:
1). Explain the difference between an acid and a base.
Whether it is going to take or accept a proton (proton is the H+)
ACID: Donates (lower than 7 pH)
o Have more H+
BASE: receives (higher than 7 pH)
o We refer to bases as alkaline
o Have more OH
You stomach pH is 1
o It is acidic
H is an acid and the OH is a base
2). Define pH and explain the relative pH values of both acids and bases.
pH: the inverse logarithm of the concentration of protons
3). Explain the term neutralization, and describe how the neutralization of both an acid and a base
Neutralization: when an acidic (H) or basic (OH) solution is returned to neutral
o They pair up
o Acids neutralize by adding a base
4). Describe the action of a buffer.
Buffer: Helps prevent pH changes if excess acid or base is added
Act to accept H+ from excess acid or donate H+ to neutralize base
o Carbonic acid (weak acid) and bicarbonate (weak base) buffer blood pH
o Both help maintain blood pH in a critical range (7.35 to 7.45)
Buffers help keep the solution neutral at 7
5). Compare and contrast the three different types of water mixtures.
Mixtures: are formed from combining two or more substances
o Substances mixed are not chemically changed (ex: water and oil)
o Substances can be separated by physical means
By heating or cooling them
1). Suspension
The heavier substance in the mixture will go to the bottom
If you were to shake the mixture it would mix but the substances themselves do not change
You at see though this solutio sattes light
1-100 nanometers
2). Colloid
all the substances in the mixture are so light that none of the go to the bottom
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looks like it is mixed but not actually bonded
you at see though this solutio sattes light
1-100 nanometers
3). Solution
the substances in the solution are so small that you can see light through it (does not scatter
none of the solution is going to the bottom
they are mixed but not actually bonded
1 nanometer
6). Explain how an emulsion differs from other types of mixtures.
When a polar and non-polar substances do not bond
Ex: oil and water
Whe i otio the sustaes dot eall i the just get i the wa of oe aothe
o There looks like there are clumps of oil in the water
7). Explain the different ways to express the concentration of solute in a solution.
Osmoles (osm): is the unit of measurement for the number of particles in a solution
Molarity: the amount of moles per Liter
o The mixture will change with temperature because you can heat up water
o Measures volume
Molality: how much the moles weigh in what you are given
o The mixture will not change with temperature
o Measures mass
Osmolarity the number of particles per 1 liter of solution
o Easier to measure
Osmolality: Number of particles in 1 kg of solution
o Difficult to measure
8). Differentiate between an organic molecule and an inorganic molecule.
Organic molecules: HAVE carbon
Inorganic molecules: DO NO have carbon
9). Describe the general chemical composition of biomolecules.
1). Lipids
Not polymer
Store energy
Lipids are found in any cell membrane
They are found in some hormones
o Means there are a long string of carbons
o Vary in length
o Vary in number of double bonds
Saturated: no double bonds
Unsaturated: one double bond
Polyunsaturated: two or more double bonds
Can dissolve in water
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Four types of lipids:
o Triglycerides MOST COMMON
Actually store energy
Long term storage
o Phospholipids
Found in cell membrane
o Steroids
o Eicosanoids
Involved in the inflammatory process
There are four types (PPTL)
o Glycolipid: carbon molecules attached to the lipid (attached to the cell membrane)
Adipose tissue: fatty tissue
o Lipogenesis: formation of fat on tissue
o Lipolysis: breakdown of fat on tissue
2). Carbohydrates
An H, OH, and C bonded together (water bonded with carbon) in multiples
(CH2 O)n
o n = the number of carbon atoms
o simple sugar monomers
o formed from two monosaccharides
o form from many monosaccharides
o Simple sugar
o Six-carbon carb
o Most common monosaccharide
o The sugar that we eat
o The process of putting glucose together which is done by dehydration
o A bunch of glucose together is called glycogen
o The process of breaking down the glycogen (polymer) to become glucose (monomer)
Types of carbohydrates:
o Hexose monosaccharides: glucose isomer (same number of atoms but it arranged
o Five-carbon monosaccharides: pentose sugars
o Disaccharides: two simple sugars bonded together
Most common: sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), maltose (malt sugar)
3). Nucleic acids
Store and transfer genetic information
Two different classes:
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