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Lecture 11

PSYC 201 Lecture 11: Chapter 11

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University of Illinois
PSYC 201

Chapter 11 Characterizing intergroup bias - Intergroup bias o Prejudice – negative or positive affective attitude toward a certain group that is applied to its members o Discrimination – unfair behaviors towards members of a certain group based on their group membership o Stereotype – beliefs/cognitions that certain attributes are characteristic of members of certain groups - Traditional racism – Prejudice against a racial group that is explicitly acknowledged and expressed by the individual (e.g. obvious indicators) - Modern racism – prejudice against a racial group that exists even though explicit racist beliefs are rejected (e.g. subtle indicators) o Suppressed when a behavior would make you look clearly racist but emerges when the racist behavior can be masked - Ambivalent sexism o Hostile sexism – typical “sexist thoughts” (domination, hostility, degradation) o Benevolent sexism – attitudes of protection, idealization, and affection towards women in traditional gender roles (chivalry) ▪ Women construe these acts of “gentlemanly norms” and are less likely to object to it o Hostile and benevolent sexism often co-exist; benevolent sexism justifies hostile sexism - Implicit association test – a technique for revealing nonconscious prejudices toward particular groups - Measuring prejudicial attitudes o 2 reasons implicit attitudes might differ from explicit ▪ People might try to hide/mask their “true attitudes” ▪ People may not be aware of these implicit associations - Perspectives on intergroup bias o Why do we prefer ingroup to outgroup members? ▪ Economic perspective – competition with outgroups over valuable/scarce resources ▪ Motivational perspective – identification with an ingroup, frustration, or social identity ▪ Cognitive perspective – we are “fast and frugal” with our thinking patterns The economic perspective - Realistic group conflict theory – when groups compete for limited resources, these groups experience conflict, prejudice, and discrimination - Prejudice and discrimination should be strongest among groups that stand to lose the most if another group succeeds - Ethnocentrism – glorifying one’s own group while vilifying other groups o Can influence framing effects - Robber’s cave o Group of boys participated in competition that led to conflict, researchers tried to reverse the prejudice and reduce conflict between groups ▪ Superordinate goal – can’t be achieved by either group alone, but can be reached if groups work together o Contemporary evidence ▪ When in conflict, group members who look and act “tough” and take an aggressive stance toward the outgroup gain popularity ▪ When in times of peace, group members no longer value masculine faces o 3 important points ▪ There were no differences in background, appearance, or history of conflict; intergroup hostility developed anyway • Economic competition = sufficient for intergroup bias ▪ Competition against outgroups often increases ingroup cohesion ▪ Intergroup conflict can be reduced by forcing groups to work together and depend on each other The motivational perspective - Social identity theory – a person’s self-concept and self-esteem are drived from o Personal identity + individual status/accomplishments o Ingroup’s status/accomplishments - Motivated ingroup preference o Minimal group paradigm – researchers create groups based on arbitrary and meaningless criteria to see if they can get people to develop intergroup bias as a result ▪ People tended to pr
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