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Lecture 12

PSYC 201 Lecture 12: Chapter 12

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University of Illinois
PSYC 201

Chapter 12 The nature and purpose of group living - Group – a collection of individuals who have relations to one another that make them interdependent to some significant degree Social facilitation - Social facilitation – the effect of the presence of others on performance; having people around enhances performance o Enhanced performance in the presence of others when performing a simple or well-learned task - Social unfacilitation – having people around impedes performance o Impaired performance in the presence of others when performing a difficult or novel task - Why social facilitation occurs o Evaluation apprehension – we have increased arousal if others can evaluate us o Mere presence – having others around makes us very alert/vigilant o Distraction-conflict theory – awareness of another person’s presence creates a conflict between attending to the person and the task - Social loafing – exerting less effort when working on a group task in which individual contributions cannot be monitored due to presence of others Group decision making - Groupthink – a style of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner - Symptoms o Group members feel that their group is invulnerable, unanimous, morally correct, and can do no harm o Group members urge each other to conform to group’s decision to reach consensus o Group members engage in self-censorship ▪ Self censorship – people withhold information/opinions that would go against the popular views of the group to avoid bringing down group morale, or being criticized or kicked out of the group - Outcomes – diverse opinions are not shared; make terrible decisions - Prevention o Remain impartial o Seek divergent opinions o Create subgroups that meet separately beforehand o Seek anonymous opinions
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