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PSYC 204 (4)

Chapters 8 and on

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University of Illinois
PSYC 204

Chapter 8Learning and Memory 3272013 114400 AM What are learning and memoryLearning acquisitionMemory the persistence of learning in a state that can be stored for some period of time persistence Stages of MemoryEncoding acquisition can then become permanent consolidationStorage information is able to be accessed in case you need it later on and can impact your behaviorRetrieval using the information that is stored Temporal Component How long is information storedMemory divided into 3 forms o Sensory lasts a few milliseconds o Shortterm seconds to minutes working memory reflects idea that information is being used and thought about o Longterm days or years Sensory MemoryVisual memory contains a short term record in the visual systemSwift decay information is gone and if it is not being workedGeorge Sperling flashed an array of letters on a screen for a very short period of time 50 msTone is sounded to cue a line and the person must repeat what they sawSensory memory is being pulled out to create short term memory o There is a good percentage of accuracy 76Whole Report Condition o People still only get about 4 letters rest of letters are gone from sensory memoryAuditory memory need a cue to retrieve soundsNeural Systems o Primary Visual Cortex in Iconic memory50 100 ms o Auditory cortex is Echoic memory Short term MemoryOnly what you are intending to focus on will be stored in short term memoryMaintain through rehearsalModal model o Attention leads to shortterm storage and rehearsal leads to longterm memoryModel is overly simplistic rehearsal does not always lead to LTM levels of processing effect different kinds of rehearsal effect your ability to maintain things differently in LTM must elaborate and think about the meaningModels of Working Memory o Where you do your mental work operations different subsystems that handle memory informationCentral executive controls what is being done with information and helps you perform operations to accomplish a taskNeurophysiological Evidence o Lesions of left supermarginal gyrus have a reduced auditory verbal memory span cannot hold verbal and auditory information in working memory 2 bits o Lesions of parietooccipital regions of both hemispheres Problems with nonverbal spatial working memory but not visualSeverely limited capacity in short term memory o Includes information coming through sensory apparatus or LTM involves using your working memory Longterm MemoryDeclarative conscious access o Facts and eventsNondeclarative memory no conscious access o Motor and cognitive skills Subdivisions of LTMDeclarative events leads to specific personal experiences and facs lead to world knowledge object and language knowledge and Nondeclarative procedural and so forthCauses of AmnesiaChronic alcohol abuse stroke and tumors Anoxia
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