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Lecture 13

PSYC 238 Lecture 13: Psychosis

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PSYC 238
Lyubansky Mikhail

Psychosis - Neurosis – broad underlying conflicts or maladaptive reactions to life problems (anxiety/depression broadly in touch with reality) - Psychosis – a mental state that impairs thought, perception, or judgement (hallucinations/delusions that appear disconnected with reality) - Schizophrenia symptoms o Positive – things that are normally absent in people, but are present in the individual ▪ Hallucinations – more objective; heightened sensory, experienced by 5 senses ▪ Delusions – more subjective; rigidly held beliefs that are false, inaccurate, or inconsistent with how most people experience reality; can be bizarre or non-bizarre • Persecutory – the belief that one is going to be harmed or harassed by an individual or organization • Referential – the belief that gestures, comments, cue, etc. are directed toward the self • Grandiose – the belief that one has exceptional abilities • Erotomaniac – the false belief that someone is in love with you • Nihilistic – the belief that a major catastrophe will occur • Somatic – the belief that one has serious health and/or organ problems o Negative – aspects of behavior and social relationships that are “normally” present, but are absent in the individual ▪ Diminished emotional expression – reduction in expression of emotions aka flat/blunted affect ▪ Avolition – lack of will power ▪ Alogia – lack of spontaneous speech ▪ Anhedonia – decreased ability to experience pleasure ▪ Asociality – lack of interest in social I nteractions o Disorganized – do not fit characteristics of positive or negative symptoms and reflect bizarre behaviors and thought disturbances ▪ Disorganized speech – going off on tangents, very difficult to follow; not giving enough context to make speech meaningful • Context maintenance – keeping instructions or background information in mind in order to give appropriate response ▪ Grossly disorganized/bizarre behaviors – ranges from child-like silliness to unpredictable agitation ▪ Catatonic motor behaviors - Criteria for schizophrenia o Prodromal, active, and residual phases must have a duration of at least 6 months o Active phase must have a duration of at least 1 month - Delusional disorder – non-bizarre delusions, other schizophrenic symptoms are largely absent - Other psychotic disorders – bizarre delusions, other schizophrenic symptoms are present - Prevalence of schizophrenia o Rare but disabling o Lifetime prevalence is less than 1% o High comorbidity with substance use disorders - Gender differences in schizophrenia o Equally likely to
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