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Lecture 12

PSYC 238 Lecture 12: Substance Use Disorders

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PSYC 238
Lyubansky Mikhail

Substance Use Disorders - Psychoactive substance – a substance that alters mental ability, mood, or behavior; drugs - Substance use – clinically significant impairment or distress, at least 2 of the following criteria, occurring within a 12 month period o Impaired control ▪ Substance used in larger amounts or for longer periods of time than intended ▪ Expresses desire to stop using substances, but reports an inability to do so ▪ Spends a great deal of time obtaining and using substances as well as recovering from its effects ▪ Craves substances often o Social impairment ▪ Failure to fulfill major obligations ▪ Continued used of substances despite issues that are caused by or exacerbated by substance used ▪ Important activities may be given up o Risky use ▪ Physically hazardous ▪ Continued use despite knowledge that substances may be physiologically or psychologically impairing o Tolerance/withdrawal ▪ Tolerance – markedly increased dose of the substance in order to get the same effect OR reduced effect when the usual dose is consumed ▪ Withdrawal – includes a set of physiological symptoms a person experiences when drug use is stopped or decreased - Tolerance and withdrawal are indicators of a physiological dependence on a drug - Prevalence of alcohol use disorder o Gender differences – men 5 times more likely to chronically abuse alcohol than women o Age differences – rates higher among young adults o Ethnic differences ▪ Native Americans have highest rates ▪ African Americans are 40% less likely - Etiology – genetic factors o Gender differences in alcoholism for MZ and DZ twins could be attributed to ▪ Women have lower physical tolerance ▪ Negative social attitudes towards public intoxication (for women) o Cloninger Adoption Study ▪ Type 1 – biological parents had later onset of drinking problems with absence of criminal behavior • Didn’t make a difference whether adoptive parents were heavy drinkers or not ▪ Type 2 – biological parents had early onset of drinking problems had undergone treatment or presence of antisocial/criminal behavior • Increased risk for alcoholism regardless of adoptive parent’s drinking habits - Etiology – social factors o Culture or religion could influence early exposure/attitudes
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