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Lecture 6

BIO 152 Lecture 6: Multicellularity January, 27th

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University of Kentucky
BIO 152
Seth Jones

January, 27th Multicellularity Mitochondria and Chloroplasts  Have own DNA o Circular like prokaryotic DNA  Have double membrane o Inner and outer  Involved in energy processing o Respiration and photosynthesis o Respiration: Breaks down sugar and releases molecules and water need in cell Mitochondria  Matrix o DNA and ribosomes  Inner membrane o Cristae = folds  Intermembrane space  Outer membrane Chloroplasts  Stroma o DNA and ribosomes  Thylakoids o Chlorophyll o Stacks are called grana  Inner membrane  Intermembrane space  Outer membrane Endosymbiosis Theory  Ancestral eukaryote ingested bacteria and it did not get digested  Mitochondria performed in breaking down glucose and getting ATP  Ancestral eukaryote benefited from it (mitochondrion), and the bacterial was passed down  Mitochondria DNA o Most similar to proteobacteria  Chloroplast DNA o Most similar to Cyanobacteria (photosynthetic bacteria)  Both use f-Met to start proteins Evolution of Multicellularity  Precambrian o Most of earth’s timeline o Photosynthesis o Prokaryote, then eukaryote  Single cellular  Multicellular life o Proterozoic era o Cambrian: diversification of phyla  Why? o Eukaryotes o Oxygenated Ocean  Evolved multiple times o Fungi (not all)  Ex) Yeast o Animals o Red algae  Ex) Some seaweed o Green algae/land plants o Brown algae  Ex) Kelp Multicellularity  Single Celled Organisms o All prokaryotes, many eukaryotes  Simple multicellularity o Multiple cells, but not different o Each cell can function alone  Complex multicellularity o Cellular differentiation  Cells different from each other  Ex) Skin cells and brain cells o Cells working together Problems of Multicellularity  What problems do multicelled organisms have to face? o Communication o Delegating tasks o Getting rid of waste o Inside cells getting food  Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs)  Cellular communication  Cellular differentiation  Bulk Flow  Multicellular organisms have to solve all of the above problems Cellular Adhesion for the Single Cell  Biofilm o Polymers secreted by cells o Form “slime” that allows cells to cling to surfaces  Ex) plaque, catheter infection  Choanoflagellates o Closest relative to animals o Some free-swimming o Some form simple multicellular colonies that stick to surface with adhesion proteins  Sticking together for multicellulars o Extracellular matrix  Structural molecules secreted by cells o Cadherin’s/pectin’s  Proteins that bind cells together o Integrin’s  Proteins bind to e
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