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Lecture 9

BIO 152 Lecture 9: Cellular Communication February, 6th

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BIO 152
Seth Jones

February, 6th Cell Signaling Involves a Signal Response  Signaling Cell: Releases signaling molecules (Ligand)  Responding Cell: Has receptor proteins that bind to the signaling molecule  Different types of signaling o Endocrine  Most hormones  Signaling and responding cell are far apart and signal travels through bulk flow o Paracrine  Signal travels just through diffusion  Within short distance, usually just a few cells from signaling to responding cell o Autocrine  Where a cell signals it self  Signaling and responding cell are the same  Feedback to the cell to make sure it is sending the right amount of signal and that the signal is working o Juxtacrine  When signaling molecule is attached to signaling cell  Way of cellular adhesion, two cells can differentiate  Seen a lot in embryonic growth o Examples:  1) Brain cells produce Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which causes the same cells to make dendrite branches  Autocrine  2) Cells in the pancreas release insulin, which travels through the blood to the liver, body cells and to fat cells, causing them to take glucose out of the blood  Endocrine  3) The delta ligand is a membrane-bound protein. It attaches to a membrane-bound receptor called notch, which when activated, causes the cell with notch to differentiate  Juxtacrine  4) The apical epidermal ridge in a developing embryo releases FGF, which causes nearby cells to make a limb  Paracrine Homeostasis  Maintenance of consistent internal environment o Set point? o Within a range of tolerance  Regulato
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