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Lecture 12

BIO 152 Lecture 12: Nervous System February, 13th

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BIO 152
Seth Jones

Nervous System February, 13th Cells of the Nervous System Neurons o Nerves o Ganglia Groups of neurons Glia Many types o Electrical insulation o Protection o Antimicrobial o Nutrition o Removal of neurotransmitters from synapse Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons o Receive sensory input o Send messages to other neurons Motor Neurons o Receive messages from one or more neurons o Send message to muscle Interneurons o Between neurons o Receive messages from multiple neurons, send a message to multiple neurons Rapid Response in Reflex Arc Circuits 1) A physician strikes the patellar tendon with a reflex hammer 2) A stretch receptor in an extensor muscle responds by sending a signal along the sensory nerve 3) The sensory neuron synapses with a motor neuron in the spinal cord 4) The motor neuron sends an excitatory signal to the same extensor 5) An inhibitory interneuron inhibits contraction of the opposing flexor muscle Simple reflex circuits make fast responses possible and is involuntary Reflex circuits, which are common in both the somatic and autonomic components of the nervous system, bypass the brain by directly connecting sensory neurons with motor neurons The kneejerk reflex in humans is an example of a simple nerve circuit that includes only a single synapse between two neuronsa sensory neuron and a motor neuron. A signal from the muscle stretch receptor signals a motor neuron in the spinal cord to increase the activation of the extensor muscle, causing the muscle to contract and the leg to extend at the knee
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