Class Notes (1,100,000)
US (480,000)
UK (1,000)
COM (60)
COM 350 (10)
Lecture 13

COM 350 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Normative Social Influence, Social Distance


Department
Communication
Course Code
COM 350
Professor
Marko Dragojevic
Lecture
13

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 3 pages of the document.
COM350: Lecture Notes
Politeness
Departures from Maximal Efficiency
o
Verbal interactions with others are not always quick, clear, and maximally efficient
we often violate Grice’s maxims
Quantity
Quality
Manner
Relation
o
Why?
The actions we perform with speech acts have implications for our and others’
face
Face: one’s public self-image
o
“Have face”: have identity validated
o
“Lose face”: fail to have identity validated
o
“Save face”: maintain an identity that has been challenged
o
Two components of face:
Positive face: desire for social approval, connection
Negative face: desire for autonomy
NOT a difference between good and bad
Competing desires. On one hand we want people to leave us alone, but on
the other hand we want to connect with others.
o
Mutual concern for face
People have an inherent desire to maintain their face. Because face is
something that is established in interaction and something others
“give” us, people show a mutual concern for face protecting others
face also protects our own face
Face-threatening acts (FTAs): communicative acts that threaten face
o
Threat to negative face of recipient
: request, offer
o
Threat to positive face of recipient
: criticism
o
Threat to negative face of speaker: promise
o
Threat to positive face of speaker: apology
Two competing desires during social interaction (in fundamental conflict)
o
Desire to perform FTAs
o
Desire to cooperatively manage each other’s face
o
To balance these competing desires, people engage in facework or politeness
Politeness typically involves deviation from maximally efficient
communication (i.e., violates Grice’s maxims)
Politeness strategies
o
There are an infinite number of ways in which people can be polite when performing
FTA
o
Brown & Levinson (1987) proposed a typology of 5 superstrategies ordered on a
continuum of politeness, from least to most polite
Five superstrategies of politeness (from least to most polite)
o
Bald-on-record: direct, blunt, maximally efficient (adheres to Grice’s maxims)
E.g., “Shut the door”
o
Positive politeness: claim common ground: show approval: complement; use
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version