STA 210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Null Hypothesis, Statistical Hypothesis Testing, Alternative Hypothesis

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15 Apr 2017
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Experimentation
Many experiments in medicine, social science, education, etc, are designed to make a
bimodal decision
A “positive” outcome means that the experiment has uncovered adequate
evidence that the treatment is effective
A “negative” outcome means that the experiment has not found adequate
evidence that the treatment is effective
Hypothesis Testing
We are generally trying to make a decision between:
Treatment is not effective
Treatment is effective
The process for decided between these two treatments is an example of what statisticians
call hypothesis testing
This diagnostic test is not a kit or a physical examination. Rather, it consists of a
collection of mathematical steps
Generally the false negative rate and the false positive rate are used to evaluate how well
a screening test performs
Statistical science tends to focus on false positive rate for a similar role in hypothesis
testing
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