BIOLOGY 116 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Ejaculation, Ovulation, Sperm Donation

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Evolution: some heritable traits help an individual to survive + reproduce better than others. These traits will, over time, increase in frequency in the population, causing evolution-- genetically based change in population traits over time. Population experiences natural selection whenever following 4 conditions apply: Some individuals survive + reproduce better than others. Differential survival + reproduction (fitness) influenced by heritable traits of individuals. Adaptation: heritable trait that increases an individual"s fitness in particular environment relative to individuals lacking the trait. Concept assumes that ancestors of bearers of trait had the trait and it was advantageous to them. Not all traits are adaptive, and even structures that currently function in organisms may be subject to genetic/historical constraints. Must be attentive to claims that particular traits are adaptations. Genetic constraint: when selection on alleles for one trait causes a correlated but suboptimal change in another trait, possible evolutionary outcomes limited.

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