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Lecture 7

BIOLOGY 226 Lecture 7: BioLab226Notes

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Sushama Pavgi

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BIO 226 LAB 7   Objectives  ­ Observe thermoregulatory mechanisms in mouse, an endotherm   ­ Observe relationship between ambient T and metabolic rate, indicated by rate of O2   ­ consumption.   ­ Observe behavioral response of mouse to changing environmental temperatures.   ­ Describe thermal characteristics of endotherms to changing environmental T.  Introduction   ­ Thermoregulate​ : maintain body T within narrow range Ectotherms depend on environmental  temperature since they have high thermal conductance and no insulation.   ­ Endotherms have low thermal conductance and high insulation­­they depend on metabolic rate to  maintain body T within a narrow range.   ­ Endotherms can extend their environmental and activity ranges beyond that of ectotherms.   ­ Cost = tenfold increase in metabolic rate for an endotherm when compared to an ectotherm of  similar body weight and body T. (way higher metabolic rates)  ­ Maintaining high metabolic rates = high aerobic energy production.   ­ Endotherms + ectotherms seek microclimates + postural adjustments to aid in thermoregulation  ­ In vertebrates = thermoregulation controlled by hypothalamus.   ­ Ambient temperature range, the thermoneutral zone (TNZ), within which endotherms have a low  metabolic rate.                  * In TNZ, metabolic rates are constant and low leveled in response to T changes.                  * In TNZ, endotherms maintain body T without altering MR significantly                  * TNZ =lower and upper T limits = lower critical temperature LCT and upper critical T UCT                 * Outside these limits, endotherms raise MR to increase heat when cold                  * + decrease MR to release heat when exposed to hot temperatures   ­ Adjusting the body posture = alter the rate of heat loss and through physiological processes such  as piloerection (goosebumps or fluffing of fur/feathers) to alter thermal conductance, shivering  increases heat production, peripheral vasoconstriction to maintain higher core body T.   ­ Peripheral vasodilation = sweating = lose heat   ­ When T is too extreme = LLT = lower lethal T and ULT = upper lethal T (hypothermic (too much  heat loss) or hyperthermi
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