A type of communication effect showing a strong link between importance places on issues by news media and importance of issues to public. News media set public agenda but causal direction between news media and public is difficult to establish in a compelling way. Public opinion measures before and after media coverage of issues. Election campaigns suitable for study and popular among researchers. News professionals set agenda for news consumers by gauging it"s importance to readers and viewers. Gatekeeping- time and space restraints restrict information flow. Attribute agenda setting- press coverage of certain issues attributes influences voters. Framing- viewpoints, sources used, and word choices invite poeple to think about an issue in a particular way. Pseudo-environment- news is merely a reflection of reality and therefore can be distorted. News media projections create a pseudo-environment for news consumers. Material presented presumes what consumers are worried about. 1960-70s researchers rejected persuasion paradigm to explain agenda setting.