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Lecture 2

EARTH 108 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Plate Tectonics


Department
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Course Code
EARTH 108
Professor
Eric Hetland
Lecture
2

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Lecture 2: Earthquakes
Lecture outline
1) where earthquakes occur
2) plate tectonics in brief
3) why earthquakes occur
4) types of earthquakes
5) are there unexpected earthquakes?
6) Earthquakes in Michigan
- From 7-14th January 2013, there were 279 earthquakes worldwide.
- 28 of these earthquakes happened in the U.S.
- at low stress (pressure and force) rock is elastic
- at high stress (pressure and force) rock flows like syrup
BUT IT IS NOT A MOLTEN FLUID
-Earthquakes happen because of this plastic deformation.
Plate tectonics
- very deep in the Earth, rock is very hot and under very large stresses
-it is solid (at most ~5% melt in places), but it flows like syrup over millions of
years
-near the surface rock is colder and harder, and does not flow
- the outer layers of Earth break up into tectonic plates
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