• Chornological framework
o 853 BCEturning point, year of battle, armies assembling in Northern Syria
in Qarqar, armies from the Eastern Middle East coming together under Aram
(Damascus) and Ahab
Ahab the Israelite opposes the Assyrians. One of the first times
“Israel” is mentioned. Coalition of 12 kings to stop the Assyrians
from Mesopotamia rd
Shalmaneser the 3 described the battle. Chariots were used. Ahab
contributed more chariots than any other king. They lost
Northern Israelites become a major player in the middle east.
o black obelisk. Visual image of the victory
o created by Shalmaneser the 3 made form basalt
o shalmeneser raising a cup to
the two divinities of the Assyrian kingdom. Sun god Shamas, and partner
Ishtar. Written in Cuneiform. Drink of victory to the gds. The guy bowing is
Yehu the son of Omri.
• Ahab was murdered and his half brother Yehu took over o last 3 are Israelites bringing presents
o The Assyrians continued to take over kingdoms.
o 732 BCE, Domascus is conquered and the Arramites kingdom is dissolved
o 720 BCEthe Israelites kingdom is completely conquered by Assyrian army
in expedition to eastern shores of Mediterranean in Northern Israel. Somaria
was their capital and it was taken down and burnt.
SargonAssyrian king at the time
o Assyrians started using deportationleaders/philosophers were deported to
other territories. Assyrians disabled societies from flourishing. Helped
Assyrians govern and maintain
o Those deported are considered the 10 lost tribes of Israel. Israelites vanished
as political entity but were still there! Only a portion was deported
• Geographical setting
o Judean Kingdom (tribe of Judah) or the House of David
o Anchored in the southern parts of the central hill (bottom third).
o Defined and isolated geographically. No major roads crossing this
territory(Via Maris crosses right through the Jezreal desert in the North)
• Demographic characteristics
o Most of the population comes from the tribe Judah. Homogeneous & stable.
Up to 720, they stay away form world events unwilling to participate
• Isolation and prosperity (economic) in the south
o Three cell(chamber) gates (city gates)elaborate, built w/ 3 chambers on each
o Water systemswater limited on the hills. They brought water into the city in
o International commerce
• Both North and south were speaking Hebrew, same script, both worship Gd of Israel,
similar scriptures, similar historical heritage. Separate politically
o North Israel and Aramians once tried to take the Judeans down
• External politics
• The great changes after 720 B