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Lecture 15

HISTART 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Thomas Edison, Tochigi Prefecture, Ashikaga Yoshikazu


Department
History of Art
Course Code
HISTART 101
Professor
Celeste Brusati
Lecture
15

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Lecture 15 Notes:
Geography: Japan compared to California and Italy
Yoyogi Park and Meiji Shrine, Tokyo
-
Meiji Shrine is a Shinto shrine that is dedicated to the deified spirits of Emperor
Meiji and his wife, Empress Shoken
First rank of government supported shrines
Destroyed in WWII and visited by several politicians
Emperor Meiji (1852-1912) and Empress Shoken (1849-1914)
-
-
Japan became a constitutional democracy of elected representatives in 1945,
after WWII
Harajuku Station; Yoyogi Park & Meiji Shrine behind, left
-
Jingūbashi (Shrine Bridge)
-
Harajuku is known internatioally as a center of Japanese youth culture and
fashion
Torii -gateway
Meiji Shrine, Main Building
Camphor tree about 900 years old
Ema
-
Ema -votive tablets for special personal prayers and gratitude toward the deities
enshrined in Meiji Jingu Shrine are offered to you for 500 yen apiece
-
Hung around this divine tree with your wishes written on the reverse side, these
Ema are offered at Mikesai, the morning ceremony held every day, and your
supplications are conveyed by the priests
Non-monotheistic religions
-
Shinto -shrines
-
Buddhism -temples
Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions
-
Shinto is the "indigenous" animalistic belief system, while Buddhism arrived
from the Asian mainland in the mid-6th century
-
Since the late 6th century, Buddhism and Shinto have become syncretized and
have complementary functions:
Shinto focuses on fertility and purification rituals
Buddhism has a monopoly on memorials and funeral services
-
Most Japanese engage in both Buddhist and Shinto rituals. Most Japanese
practice a kind of "secular spirituality". There are Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
Japanese, most of whom have joined or "converted" to those faithers by choice
or marriage. This does not keep them from practicing aspects of Shinto and
Buddhist practices.
-Ema (votive tablets) are offered at both shrines and temples
Shinto
-Way of the kami -animism
Kami = gods, forces, vital energies
§Spirits that are concerned with human beings -they appreciate our
interest in them and want us to be happy
Purity to pollution
Theravada & Mahayana
-Arrives in Japan around 520-550 AD
-Thereavada
Earliest form of Buddhism -1 BCE
Comprising 38% of all Buddhists, Theravada is typically found in
Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Sri Lanka
The emphasis in Theravada Buddhism is on perfecting one's life and
thereby reaching enlightenment
Theravada emphasizes membership in a clergy and the pursuit of a
monastic life
Other world focus
-Mahayana
School of Buddhism developed out of the Theravada between 100 BCE
and 100 CE
This is the largest of the branches which comprises 56% to 62% of all
Buddhists. Mahayana is typically found in China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan,
Vietnam, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and Mongolia
Personal enlightenment as an ideal is regarded as a selfish act. The focus is
instead on the compassionate Bodhisattva ideal that one's primary
objective is not to win enlightenment for oneself but to help all sentient
being first
This focus
Altars
-Buddha statue
-Shinto mirror
Ema
-An ema excavated from an archaeological site in today's Hamamatsu City. One
of the earliest (8th century) extant ema.
White horse = purity
-Historically, the pentagonal, or "house", shape was used to post instructions or
directives. The shape itself embodied and conveyed authority.
Oema -large
Koema -small
-Emado -ema hall
Naritasan Shinsho-ji -temple, founded 940,
Narita, Chiba Prefecture
-Iwada Yoshikazu, ema (large and small) artist active today
-Yoshida ema studieo (emaya) originally founded in the 17th century. Nikko area,
Tochigi Prefecture
Small ema became especially popular from the 17th century onward and
were made artisans
Materials -nails -pull out the nails of my disease
The people provoke deities to listen to them
People who hang up their ema expect people to read them
§This creates a sense of empathy -we share the same goals and
aspirations/struggles
Civic mindedness
-
-Hono -offering & request
A request that attempts to provoke or invite in someone, whether human or
kami (deity), a response or reaction of some sort
-Kigan -prayerful request -often used to preface the message inscribed (usually
on the back) by the supplicant
"Bring me a bride"
"Ensure household safety, protection from illness and injury"
"If I miss a deadline, please consider punishing me
-Ema are a public, even touristic medium; supplicants expect others to read their
wishes; sharing problems as well as aspirations reassures people that they have
much in common with others
Ema kuyo -memorial/ritual burning of ema
-The act of burning releases the prayers/requests to be acted upon by the gods
-What they do with the remainder Emas
-Priests collect and burn, which further releases the messages
The messages swirl up to the gods with the flames
Yushima Tenman-gu -Shrine in Tokyo, dedicated to Sugawara no Michizan, a courtier
venerated as the kami of scholarship.
-Thus, the majority of ema are prayers for success in school (college, HS, JHS)
applications, entrance examinations, and scholarly aspirations
-Michizane's animal avatar is the ox
-Force to be a non-profit because they made so much profit from the ox sales, so
they were forced to become /turn profits into scholarships
Magical transfer -you draw on ema to transfer your worries to the Gods
-Sicilian ex voto -offer breast shaped, so their cancer does not come back
People made ema with the specific body parts or areas where they needed
help: skin, breasts, hands, shoulder, back and leg ailments
Mexican ex votos in the form of metal plaques representing all sorts of
anatomical parts or also the very real objects referencing or indexing the
sickness itself: a crutch, medical instruments, bandages
-Padlocks to avoid something
Break off a relationship -stop philandering
Stop gambling
-Bird with brush
Help me become a better calligrapher/write well on my test
-Moneys with the genitals covered
Help me avoid STIs or STDs
-Me -eyes
This ema is offered by persons with eye ailments
Current events are also reflected on emas
-03.11.11. triple disaster: earthquake, tsunami, nuclear reactor meltdown
Thomas Edison ema -the bamboo he chose for use as a filament is his orginal lightbulb
came from a bamboo forest clost to the Iwashimizu Hachiman-gu in Kyoto.
-Silkscreened image
Ema for the new lunar year
02.10.17. Public Prayers: Japanese Votive Tablets
Sunday,)March)19,)2017
9:49)PM
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Lecture 15 Notes:
Geography: Japan compared to California and Italy
Yoyogi Park and Meiji Shrine, Tokyo
-Meiji Shrine is a Shinto shrine that is dedicated to the deified spirits of Emperor
Meiji and his wife, Empress Shoken
First rank of government supported shrines
Destroyed in WWII and visited by several politicians
Emperor Meiji (1852-1912) and Empress Shoken (1849-1914)
-Meiji Period (1868-1912)
-Japan became a constitutional democracy of elected representatives in 1945,
after WWII
Harajuku Station; Yoyogi Park & Meiji Shrine behind, left
-Jingūbashi (Shrine Bridge)
-Harajuku is known internatioally as a center of Japanese youth culture and
fashion
Torii -gateway
Meiji Shrine, Main Building
Camphor tree about 900 years old
Ema
-Ema -votive tablets for special personal prayers and gratitude toward the deities
enshrined in Meiji Jingu Shrine are offered to you for 500 yen apiece
-Hung around this divine tree with your wishes written on the reverse side, these
Ema are offered at Mikesai, the morning ceremony held every day, and your
supplications are conveyed by the priests
Non-monotheistic religions
-Shinto -shrines
-Buddhism -temples
Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions
-Shinto is the "indigenous" animalistic belief system, while Buddhism arrived
from the Asian mainland in the mid-6th century
-Since the late 6th century, Buddhism and Shinto have become syncretized and
have complementary functions:
Shinto focuses on fertility and purification rituals
Buddhism has a monopoly on memorials and funeral services
-Most Japanese engage in both Buddhist and Shinto rituals. Most Japanese
practice a kind of "secular spirituality". There are Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
Japanese, most of whom have joined or "converted" to those faithers by choice
or marriage. This does not keep them from practicing aspects of Shinto and
Buddhist practices.
-Ema (votive tablets) are offered at both shrines and temples
Shinto
-Way of the kami -animism
Kami = gods, forces, vital energies
§Spirits that are concerned with human beings -they appreciate our
interest in them and want us to be happy
Purity to pollution
Theravada & Mahayana
-Arrives in Japan around 520-550 AD
-Thereavada
Earliest form of Buddhism -1 BCE
Comprising 38% of all Buddhists, Theravada is typically found in
Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Sri Lanka
The emphasis in Theravada Buddhism is on perfecting one's life and
thereby reaching enlightenment
Theravada emphasizes membership in a clergy and the pursuit of a
monastic life
Other world focus
-Mahayana
School of Buddhism developed out of the Theravada between 100 BCE
and 100 CE
This is the largest of the branches which comprises 56% to 62% of all
Buddhists. Mahayana is typically found in China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan,
Vietnam, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and Mongolia
Personal enlightenment as an ideal is regarded as a selfish act. The focus is
instead on the compassionate Bodhisattva ideal that one's primary
objective is not to win enlightenment for oneself but to help all sentient
being first
This focus
Altars
-Buddha statue
-Shinto mirror
Ema
-An ema excavated from an archaeological site in today's Hamamatsu City. One
of the earliest (8th century) extant ema.
White horse = purity
-Historically, the pentagonal, or "house", shape was used to post instructions or
directives. The shape itself embodied and conveyed authority.
Oema -large
Koema -small
-Emado -ema hall
Naritasan Shinsho-ji -temple, founded 940,
Narita, Chiba Prefecture
-Iwada Yoshikazu, ema (large and small) artist active today
-Yoshida ema studieo (emaya) originally founded in the 17th century. Nikko area,
Tochigi Prefecture
Small ema became especially popular from the 17th century onward and
were made artisans
Materials -nails -pull out the nails of my disease
The people provoke deities to listen to them
People who hang up their ema expect people to read them
§This creates a sense of empathy -we share the same goals and
aspirations/struggles
Civic mindedness
-
-Hono -offering & request
A request that attempts to provoke or invite in someone, whether human or
kami (deity), a response or reaction of some sort
-Kigan -prayerful request -often used to preface the message inscribed (usually
on the back) by the supplicant
"Bring me a bride"
"Ensure household safety, protection from illness and injury"
"If I miss a deadline, please consider punishing me
-Ema are a public, even touristic medium; supplicants expect others to read their
wishes; sharing problems as well as aspirations reassures people that they have
much in common with others
Ema kuyo -memorial/ritual burning of ema
-The act of burning releases the prayers/requests to be acted upon by the gods
-What they do with the remainder Emas
-Priests collect and burn, which further releases the messages
The messages swirl up to the gods with the flames
Yushima Tenman-gu -Shrine in Tokyo, dedicated to Sugawara no Michizan, a courtier
venerated as the kami of scholarship.
-Thus, the majority of ema are prayers for success in school (college, HS, JHS)
applications, entrance examinations, and scholarly aspirations
-Michizane's animal avatar is the ox
-Force to be a non-profit because they made so much profit from the ox sales, so
they were forced to become /turn profits into scholarships
Magical transfer -you draw on ema to transfer your worries to the Gods
-Sicilian ex voto -offer breast shaped, so their cancer does not come back
People made ema with the specific body parts or areas where they needed
help: skin, breasts, hands, shoulder, back and leg ailments
Mexican ex votos in the form of metal plaques representing all sorts of
anatomical parts or also the very real objects referencing or indexing the
sickness itself: a crutch, medical instruments, bandages
-Padlocks to avoid something
Break off a relationship -stop philandering
Stop gambling
-Bird with brush
Help me become a better calligrapher/write well on my test
-Moneys with the genitals covered
Help me avoid STIs or STDs
-Me -eyes
This ema is offered by persons with eye ailments
Current events are also reflected on emas
-03.11.11. triple disaster: earthquake, tsunami, nuclear reactor meltdown
Thomas Edison ema -the bamboo he chose for use as a filament is his orginal lightbulb
came from a bamboo forest clost to the Iwashimizu Hachiman-gu in Kyoto.
-Silkscreened image
Ema for the new lunar year
02.10.17. Public Prayers: Japanese Votive Tablets
Sunday,)March)19,)2017 9:49)PM
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version