2. Political Science
4. Spirit of 45
8. Custom Union
9. Optimal Currency Area
10. Alsace Lorraine
1. European Union: 28 different countries that have banded together and created a
common set of policies. Some are economic in nature, some are political. The
most developed are economic in nature. Major countries except Switzerland, and
Norway and Iceland.
2. Population: 492 million people in EU
3. Spirit of ’45: Never again
oWe have to avoid another war like WW2. No more human and material
oNot sustainable because it wasn’t an isolated event. WW1, franco-prussian
war, napoleon wars.
oAs a consequence of trying to avoid another war, subsidiary views. A way to
prevent the wars was to figure out a way to avoid the mistakes of the past.
Mistakes of the past:
Making the loser pay: meant having the loser foot the bill. Cannot sustain
it. Economic strife.
•Franco Prussian war: when France lost, Germany imposed heavy
indemnity. Germans said they would only leave French territory if they
paid. Germans made them pay it in full, and the French citizens were
burdened with taxes. They paid but the French people were angry and
French nationalism grew high. When France won in WW2, they
demanded that Germany pay heavy indemnities as well.
Strategic national control of regions with important resources.
oGerman’s kept French Alsace-Lorrain because of iron ore.
oAfter WW2, French took back Alsace- Lorraine, and even took the Saarland,
because of the coal resources present there.
Cycle of violence
4. George Marshall:
oCommencement speech at Harvard, spring 1947
oSecretary of state
oThe way we avoid making the mistakes of the past, we get the countries that
suffered the least damage, and had the most resources, to help clean up the
mess. To reduce bitterness and desire for revenge.