CICS 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Arab Spring, Archaic Globalization, Palermo Protocols

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Module 1
Globalization
Three views
oTransformationalists: argue that integration of markets and erosion of
the nation-state is a profoundly transformative time
oRejectionists: argue that the claims mentioned above are either
incorrect or exaggerated, they might even say globalization is such a
big turn that it really doesn’t belong in academics at all
oSkeptics: in the middle, they feel like globalization is real and worthy
of studying but they would point to and emphasize the limitations of it
Archaic globalization
oCame about when the Silk Roads linked the Roman Empire in the Han
Dynasty
oSilk, spices, salt, glass, medicine, etc. were traded as well as religion
and philosophy
oIt was limited to the Old World
oIt did not really go beyond the Eurasian continent
Early fifteenth century
oOld and New Worlds connect
oPrimary movement is East to West
oEuropeans brought livestock to the West, and brought tobacco back
oThere were potatoes brought back to Russia that stopped the famine
oThe rise of colonial empires and the extraction of natural resources
and wealth we still see in global inequality today
Industrialization: modern globalization
oCommunications, transportation, technology advance dramatically
oScope of trade and immigration peak in 1900s; at this time
immigrants made up about 60% of the population (now about 13%)
Last time: globalization
oThe processes through which regions have become more
interdependent through communication, transportation, and trade
oInterdependence is the key word
oBased on values: convenience, low cost
Contemporary globalization
oThis phase is qualitatively different
oTechnology is now in the hands of individuals; in the past, the
technological advancements were in the hands of corporations
oWe’re not only consumers, but producers; we can all upload our own
work to the Internet
oThis is what’s different about contemporary globalization
Economics
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oDebate: is globalization source of economic prosperity, leading to
greater equality?
Leading to (global) prosperity?
oFriedman (journalist) argues globalization is: “leveling the playing
field” and “leading to a world of unprecedented prosperity”
oThe world is no longer isolated, therefore you can compete and
succeed
Gini coefficient
oInter-country inequality is between .65 and .70 now
oGlobal inequality is rising
Economists analyze
oProcess is complex
oMain indexes measure through
Flows: trade (as a percent of GDP), foreign direct investment,
payments to foreign nationals
Restrictions on flows: import barriers, tariffs on products,
taxes on international trade
Economic flows
oFacilitate growth, but some countries are better positioned to grow
than others
oGhemawat: argues in terms of social hierarchy, the world is not “flat,”
we are less globalized than we think, we’re more likely to trade with
whoever is around the corner
Outsourcing: global view
oOutsourcing is when you take a component of operation and place it
in different country
oExample: call centers
o“Low wage, low prestige service sector jobs in America can be turned
into high wage, prestige jobs in India”
Outsourcing: local view
oLocal view is darker
oThe people who work at polling centers typically last about 3 years
before they quit
oHigh stress and emotionally tiring job: language policing, work
schedule not in sync with normal body clock, loss of social ties and
former identities
Offshoring: global view
oOffshoring is when you move your entire operation/factory to
another place to take advantage of cheaper labor or a better tax
environment
oThis is theoretically good for business and workers
oThis strategy is used with considerable success
oAll aspects of production move theoretically good for business and
workers
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Offshoring: local view
oWomen were exhausted, 12 hour shifts with short breaks
oThey would experience “spirit possession” in which they would fall
down, employers would pump them with valium
o“Golden straightjacket” is when a corporation makes attractive tax
system but country does not benefit
Economic take away
oGlobalization CAN facilitate economic growth for countries that can
profit from expanded markets
oGlobal inequality is rising
Political flows: is globalization leading to greater democratization?
Renewed commitment to increase interdependence
oEconomic depression
oConcentration of power
oCapitalism
oPower was concentrated in the few Victorious allies who had a shared
belief in capitalism
International institutions
oThe initial framework created at Bretton Woods in 1944:
International Monetary Fund (IMF) – stabilize currencies and
the gold standard
General agreement on tariffs and trade (becomes WTO)
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(becomes World Bank)
Major concerns
oWorker safety
oLabor compensation
oEnvironment
Anti-globalization
oNetworks of protestors are transnational
oThey share a conviction that globalization bypasses normal
mechanisms of democratic accountability
oTake away: globalization highly contested
Francis Fukuyama (1989)
oTransformationalist
o“We not only witnessed the end of the Cold War, but the culmination
of mankind’s ideological evolution”
Waves of democratization
oBetween the 1700s and 2000, there was an increase in democracies
around the world
Spain turns to democracy in 1970s
Dictatorships in Latin America end
End of Apartheid
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