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Lecture 4

MCDB 310 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Bradypnea, Membrane Potential, Coenzyme Q10

Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Course Code
MCDB 310
Kenneth Balazovich

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Project 4: Lack of Electrons and H+?
Oxidative phosphorylation requires four functional protein complexes and an F-Type ATPase,
each of which is composed of many different elements including proteins and prosthetic groups.
A lack of function or a lack of synthesis of any one of those elements can have disastrous
consequences. This project focuses on cytochrome c, a one electron carrier molecule and
incorporates material found in Chapters 16 and 19, but also other material from the course and
not even in the course! _______________________________________________
Fundamental Biochemistry:
1.(1 point) What is the specific function of cytochrome c in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
As an electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation, cytochrome c shuttles two electrons to
Complex IV
2.(1 point) How is this particular cytochrome chemically (physically) different from other
cytochromes?The particular chemical/physical property you need to address is directly
associated with its function.
Cytochrome c has two thioether bonds involving sulfhydryl groups of cysteine residues.
3.(1 point) Where is cytochrome c expressed, meaning where in cells does it function? Is there
more than one cellular location?
It functions in the mitochondria. There are no other cellular locations.
4.(1 point) The synthesis of cytochromes is complex, yet a very important precursor of
cytochromes for heme ring synthesis comes from one of the metabolic pathways you learned.
What metabolic pathway that you studied contributes a very important metabolic intermediate
(not an “energy molecule) to heme synthesis?
The Citric Acid Cycle: Succinyl-CoA + Glycine synthesizes Heme.
Cellular metabolism and Signaling:
5.(1 point) Cytochrome c is also involved in another important cellular function. Cytochrome c
may be released from damaged mitochondria into the cytoplasm to initiate this process. What
specific cellular process is triggered by cytochrome c released into the cytosol?
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