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Notes from February 28th

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University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Lecture Notes 2/18/14 • Mood disorders o Sadness is an emotion o Depression is a disorder that involves sad/dysphoric mood and many other symptoms  Mood: Long lasting, diffused, non-specific affective experience that include frequent emotions.  Euthymic mood: neutral  In mood disorders people are stuck in one of the extremes o Unipolar (only about one side of the continuum)  Major Depressive Disorder MDD • An unipolar disorder characterized by the presence of one or more Major Depressive Episodes (MDE). o MDE is a specific bout of depression o Criteria is based on symptoms, how long they lasted, and whether they caused impairment o Most people experience more than one MDE o Symptoms of a Major Depressive Episode (MDE): 5 or more for 2 weeks nearly every day.  Emotional: Depressed mood  Cognitive: Feeling of worthlessness, guilt, suicidal  Somatic: Fatigue, weight loss/gain, insomnia/hypersomnia  Behavioral: psychomotor retardation/agitation • Anhedonia: lack of pleasure from things that used to bring you pleasure • Most common disorder • Highest lifetime prevalence • Highest 12 month prevalence • Most costly disorder in general o Costs of productivity and treatment • Childhood onset o Have the most chronic and impairing kind of depression • Depression rates increase around age 15 • Prior to puberty, there’s no difference in rates between gender o After puberty females are significantly more likely to have depression than males o Male conflicts are shorter than female conflicts • Causes o Environment: stress  Depressed kids accumulate stressful events faster than non-depressed kids  Number one environmental risk factor o Structural: Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis  Is it chronically overactive on its own or because of stress? o Genes  There is a genetic involvement in depression  If you have both short alleles and are exposed to several stressful events, your chance for depression is much higher o Neurotransmitters: Serotonin  Involved in depression, but is not the cause  The fact that it is low is not involved in depression
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