PSYCH 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Classical Conditioning, Contiguity, Operant Conditioning

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8 Feb 2017

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Psychology 111
Dr. Perlmutter Winter 2017
Lecture 8: Learning
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning
What is Learning?
A relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from experience
Not maturation (that is more biologically based)
Not drugs
Not injury
Classical Conditioning is learning by associating between paired stimuli (i.e. thunder/lightning)
Law of Contiguity states that things occurring close in time or space are associated
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Stimulus that naturally triggers a response
Unconditioned Response (UR)
Naturally occurring response to US
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Previously neutral stimulus that through conditioning evokes CR
Conditioned Response (CR)
Learned response to CS
Generalization is a response to stimuli similar to the CS
Discrimination is the lack of a response to stimuli similar to CS
Acquisition is the formation of a new conditioned response
Extinction is the result of the presentation of CS w/o the US over time; weakening of
conditioned response
Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of extinguished response
Operant Conditioning is the learning consequences of response
Law of Effect stats that the consequences of a response affect the probability that the response
ill/o’t e repeated (Thorndike)
REINFORCEMENT (increases behavior)
PUNISHMENT (decreases behavior)
Positive Reinforcement
Adds something desirable (reward)
Examples: food, money, praise
Positive Punishment
Adds something aversive (punish)
Examples: spanking, fine, criticism
Negative Reinforcement
Removes something adverse (relieve)
Examples: removal of pain, guilt
Negative Punishment
Removes something desirable (penalize)
Examples: removal of privileges
Shaping is the reinforcement of successive approximations to reach a desired response
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