PSYCH 250 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Bobo Doll Experiment, Nso People, Cultural-Historical Psychology

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6 Feb 2017
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PSYCH 250
Professor Jodl
Lecture #7: The First Two Years of Life: Psychosocial Development
Theories of Early Psychosocial Development
Psychoanalytic theory
Behaviorism
Cognitive theory
Evolutionary theory
Sociocultural theory
Erikson’s first two psychosocial stages
Trust vs mistrust
Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic
needs are met
Autonomy vs Shame & doubt
Infants succeed (or fail) in gaining sense of self-rule over their own
actions and bodies
Behaviorism
Parents mold an infant’s emotions and personality via reinforcement or
punishment
Social referencing strengthens learning through observation (look at others
emotional facial cues before acting)
Ex. bandura’s bobo doll experiment
Cognitive Theory
Infants form a concept of what to expect from other people. Early experiences
are important because of:
Beliefs
Perceptions
Memories
Result is a model or a set of assumptions about relationships. Our interpretation
of early experiences is Key
Evolutionary Theory
Infants emotions are part of the evolutionary mandate.
Over the course of human history, attachment promotes species survival by
keeping toddlers close to their caregivers & keeping caregivers vigilant.
Sociocultural Theory
The social/cultural context plays a central role in infant development
Ethnotheory - a child-rearing theory that is embedded in a particular culture or
ethnic group
Ex. proximal vs. distal parenting (see “opposing perspectives” pp. 201-
202 in text)
Proximal and Distal Parenting
Proximal parenting - involves close physical contact with the child’s entire body
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Distal parenting practices maintain more physical distance (e.g., give toys,
encouraging self-feeding talking face-to-face)
An example - keller et al 2004
The study:
78 rural NSo of West Africa and urbana Greek parents and infants
The Findings:
Nso mothers were proximal parents whereas Greek parents were distal
parents
Nso toddlers did NOT recognize themselves in a mirror, but were
compliant
Greek toddlers were self-aware, but not compliant
African babies = compliant
Greek babies = self aware
Culture is expressed in our parenting styles
Basic Emotions in First Year
Happiness
Social smile: 6 weeks
Laughter: 2-4 months
Anger
General distress (from birth)
Anger: 4-8 months
Fear
Stranger wariness & Separation Anxiety: 9-14 months
Self-Conscious Emotions
Shame
Embarrassment
Guilt
Envy
Pride
Emerges in second year as toddlers become aware of self
Self-Awareness
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