Vitamin Intro and A.doc

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Animal Science
Mark Huyler

AnSci 332 Spring, 2013 Vitamins Organic compounds that are required in very small amounts. Some prevent classical human diseases Beriberi Thiamin Pellagra Niacin Rickets Vitamin D Scurvy Vitamin C Night Blindess Vitamin A Two Groups: Fat Soluble (A,D, E, K) Water soluble (most of which are enzyme cofactors- required for various reactions, such as B12) Thiamin Niacin Pantothenic Acid Pyridoxine (Vitamin B 6 Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B ) 12 Folacin / Folic Acid Biotin Choline Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Requirements 1. All Vitamins are required at the tissue level by all animals. a. Must be absorbed to level of tissue 2. Rumen microbes can synthesize water soluble vitamins and Vit K, which are all available to the host (there may be production response to increased niacin and B 12 Synthesis of water-soluble vitamins also occurs in the lower gut of monogastric animals but there is (generally) no absorptive mechanism, unless the animal practices coprophagy. Doesn’t do them any good, otherwise. If animals normally practice coprophagy and you don’t provide way for them to do it, you have to provide alternative for water vits 3. Vitamin D (25 hydroxycholecalciferol) is synthesized from precursor 7- dehydrocholesterol by skin exposure to UV light. 4. Vitamin C is required in the diet in primates and guinea pigs. Other animals synthesize it. Vitamin A Includes all compounds with Vitamin A activity Retinoids: several different forms retinol, retinal, retinoic acid Vit –ol –al -oic (all different forms) OH aldehyde Acid Carotenoids (600 carotenoids; <10% have Vit A activity)  only about 10% have Vit A activity B- Carotene carotenoids occur in plants (Vit A does not). If you cleave in the middle, it give you Vit A. Fortify milk with Vit A. Refer to Structure…. Many double bonds, which are easily oxidized resulting in lost activity Stored feed hay and grain (β-carotene), frost damage, fermentation all results in losses of β-carotene. Vit A does not occur in plants (β-carotenes do). β-carotene provides 2 units of Vit A (1/2 cup of carrot juice provides 20,000IU of Vit A; 4 times the RDA). Cats and mink do not posses the enzyme necessary for cleavage of β-carotene hence can only use Vit A. Includes all compounds with Vitamin A activity Retinoids Carotenoids Β-carotenes World Health Organization: 190 million preschool children are “at risk” of Vitamin A deficiency. Cost about $.20/ treatment. Golden Rice- Vit A Gene inserted Increased Vitamin intake Concerns about GMO feeding to a third world country Biological Function 1. Vitamin A derivat
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