Anthropology 100 – Lecture
October 9 th
(Homo Erectus cultural systems)
tropics and temperate in Subsistence
Africa and Europe and Asia. gathering and
and hunting camps
*made huts/maybe started moving into caves – all to protect their fires/changes
Human mouth opens ½ as wide as chimp mouth.
Human mouth holds about 2/3 as much as chimps mouth.
Human molars are the smallest/body weight of all primates.
Human jaw muscles are the smallest/body site of primates.
Human stomach is 1/3 the size/body weight of mammals.
Human guys (stomach and intestines) are about 60% of primates.
Humans are predators whose natural instinct is to kill with a weapon.
- Robert Ardrey
Biological reductionism – cause of human cultural variation can be reduced to
human biological variation.
a. Fuzzy definitions
b. Constants do not explain variables
a. What is the pathway from DNA to behavioral trait?
3. Evolutionary – empirical a. Evaluate theories with data
Second site where homo erectus were found (near Beijing).
- Now a UNESCO world heritage site with a small museum protecting the
October 15 th
Evidence of trying to make a fire. Twenty-five of these where they were originally
Conclusions abut the middle Pleistocene,
- Homo erectus and Homo sapiens both use culture and a generalized
biology and engage in symbolic learning to adapt to an ever widening
range of environments.
- Biology and culture (not OR) work together to make this possible.
- Bio-cultural adaptability is the human nature we have interpreted from the
Pleistocene, not biological constraints.
Homo Sapiens – Egalitarian cultures
Environment: Population: Subsistence:
500+ hunting and gathering
All climate zones Economy: Settlement pattern:
All continents except reciprocity mobile, mostly
for Antarctica Social org: Ideology:
Social: kinship risky and complex