Lectures from October

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Robert Paynter

Alexandria Gold Anthropology 100 – Lecture October 9 th (Homo Erectus cultural systems) Environment Culture tropics and temperate in Subsistence Africa and Europe and Asia. gathering and hunting/cooking Technology Acheulean tradition/fire Settlement pattern base camps and hunting camps Political organization Egalitarian Social organization Kinship groups Economic organization Cooperative hunting Ideology ?? *made huts/maybe started moving into caves – all to protect their fires/changes settlement patterns. Fun facts:  Human mouth opens ½ as wide as chimp mouth.  Human mouth holds about 2/3 as much as chimps mouth.  Human molars are the smallest/body weight of all primates.  Human jaw muscles are the smallest/body site of primates.  Human stomach is 1/3 the size/body weight of mammals.  Human guys (stomach and intestines) are about 60% of primates. Humans are predators whose natural instinct is to kill with a weapon. - Robert Ardrey Biological reductionism – cause of human cultural variation can be reduced to human biological variation. Criticism: 1. Logical a. Fuzzy definitions b. Constants do not explain variables 2. Biological a. What is the pathway from DNA to behavioral trait? 3. Evolutionary – empirical a. Evaluate theories with data Zhoukoudian: Second site where homo erectus were found (near Beijing). - Now a UNESCO world heritage site with a small museum protecting the caves. October 15 th Terra amada: Evidence of trying to make a fire. Twenty-five of these where they were originally found. Conclusions abut the middle Pleistocene, - Homo erectus and Homo sapiens both use culture and a generalized biology and engage in symbolic learning to adapt to an ever widening range of environments. - Biology and culture (not OR) work together to make this possible. - Bio-cultural adaptability is the human nature we have interpreted from the Pleistocene, not biological constraints. Upper Pleistocene: Homo Sapiens – Egalitarian cultures Environment: Population: Subsistence: 500+ hunting and gathering Natural: All climate zones Economy: Settlement pattern: All continents except reciprocity mobile, mostly for Antarctica Social org: Ideology: Social: kinship risky and complex
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