Cell Surface Receptors, Intracellular Switches Controlling Signaling Pathways

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Biochemistry & Molecular Bio.
David Gross

April 14, 2014 • types of signaling receptors o intracellular receptors o cell surface receptors  ion channel-coupled receptors  enzyme-coupled receptors  G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) • cell surface receptors o the cascade of signal transduction  intracellular mediators • relay the signal • amplify the signal • distribute the signal  signal transduction pathways controlled by molecular switches • enzyme-coupled receptors o cell signaling receptors at surface o have ligand binding sites o 2 types:  receptor kinases – ligand binding induces activity within receptor • intracellular switches control signaling pathways o kinase phosphorylation cascades o relatively sharp threshold where there’s no response and a full response o signal comes in and turns on the kinase through phosphorylation • cell surface receptors o G-protein-coupled receptors (GTPases) o anchored in the plasma membrane via lipid modifications o stimulation of the receptor recruits the G-protein and activates the GTPase portion which has other enzymatic activity • intracellular switches control signaling pathways: signaling GTPases o GDP bound form is inactive, GTP bound is active o the rate of hydrolysi
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