Biology and the Tree of Life

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Mark Huyler

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September 5th Chapter #1: Biology and the Tree of Life What does it mean for an organism to be “alive”?  Must produce and use energy (sun = biggest energy source)  Organism is made up of cells  Organism possess genetic information  Must be capable of reproduction  Continuously evolving  Cell theory – all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells (Mid 1600s) o Robert Hooke (English) – 1665 o Examined cork trees and found cells (30x)  Anton van Leeuwenhock (Dutch) succeeded Hooke by creating more powerful microscopes, discovered unicellular organisms and described the structure of human blood and sperm cells (300x)  Hypothesis testing…  H(o) = null hypothesis  H(a) = test hypothesis  1858 Origin of Species (sold out in one day)  Species are related by common ancestry o Revolutionary theory because up until that point species were considered to be created by a divine being  Natural selection – species have changed through time and all species are related to one another through common ancestors o “Descent with modification” – characteristics of a species can be modified from generation to generation o Species “evolve” due to “natural selection” on individuals within that population September 5h o certain versions of heritable traits help individuals survive better or reproduce more than do other versions  Theory – explanation for a general class of observations  Cells – bounded by plasma membranes and are found in aqueous solutions o Reproduce asexually  Scientific patterns: o 1) describes a pattern in the natural world o 2) identifies a process that is responsible for creating that pattern  1858 – Rudolph Virchow – all cells come from preexisting cells  Louis Pasteur – set out to test both theories applying the “experimental” or scientific method o “never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow struck by this simple experiment” o Made major accomplishments in the fields of immunology and vaccination…anthrax/chicken cholera/ra
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