KIN 272 Lecture 4: Cardiovascular System

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
KIN 272
Jennifer Gordon

Cardiovascular: Blood 5 Major functions of blood: 1. Transportation a. Dissolve gases, hormones, nutrients, wastes 2. Regulation of pH and ion composition of interstitial fluid/extracellular fluid a. Movement/ diffusion of substances, osmosis, how ions move into and out to balance charges 3. Restriction of fluid loss at an injury site a. Clotting factor: platelets, limit fluid loss 4. Defense a. Against foreign invaders, pathogens, due to white blood cells 5. Stabilization of body temperature a. Blood carries and transports heat Transportation of heat- to regulate body temperature; homeostasis • Core temperature- closer to core zone; the inside o So much heat on the inside, gets transported into the blood o The blood will take the heat to the shell • Shell temperature- closer to skin; everything that is not the core o Heat will go to the shell, exchange the heat with the environment through radiation and evaporation so the body will cool down o The warmer the inside, the smaller the gradient b/w the core and the shell o During cold day, all the heat in the core travels to the skin. The temperature gradient from hot to cold is large, the exchange from hot to cold is really easy, we stay colder in the shell o During hot day, exchange hot to hot is not easy, heat cannot be get rid off ▪ Core expands, shell becomes tiny, body overheat o Heat is a byproduct; came from all chemical reactions o When exercising, you increase the chemical reactions  increase byproduct of heat  need to get rid of heat  heat goes into blood  heat goes to shell  heat exchange in the environment Composition of blood • Hematocrit- % of formed elements in blood, all of from cells (RBC, platelets, WBC) • WBC:-count <0.01%; not in circulation, located in tissues, spleen, lymphatic organs, not in blood vessels o Will only see in circulation when fighting an infection o A number of WBC are not circulating and are located in tissues or lymphatic system • RBC (erythrocyte)- makes up 37-53% of whole blood; 99.9% of formed element o Contain hemoglobin- protein that makes blood red ▪ Hemoglobin is a quaternary protein, 4 tertiary structures bound together: two alphas, two betas ▪ Each of the tertiary structure has a heme unit= 4 total heme units; it contains iron • Heme group has high affinity for oxygen; it likes to bind to oxygen o Each hemoglobin can carry 4 Oxygen; 4 heme units bind to 4 oxygen • Heme group has low affinity for CO2 and H+; Don’t bind very easily o Will carry only 1 CO2 or H+; will carry only one thing at a time, will not intermix them o Oxygen needs to detach for H+ to bind, vice versa ▪ Oxyhemoglobin- oxygen is bound hemoglobin • O2 plasma levels are low  Hb release O2 o 2% should be dissolved in plasma, the 98% should be in RBC o <2% because tissue needed more oxygen for ATP to be made in mitochondria; oxygen will not go into the cytoplasm • O2 plasma level increase  bind more O2 to Hb o Happens in the lungs ▪ Deoxyhemoglobin- oxygen is detached to hemoglobin ▪ Carbaminohemoglobin- CO2 is bound to hemoglobin • CO2 levels are high in tissues  increase the formation of carbaminohemoglobin  release more O2 ▪ Hydrogen hemoglobin (HHB)- hydrogen and hemoglobin added together o Biconcave disks shape- RBC has no nucleus, not sphere so sides caved in ▪ Form fits function, allows to travel through blood vessels o 7.8 micrometer diameter ▪ Diameter of a capillary is about 7.6 micrometer, capillary is the smallest vessel in the body o Lifespan of about 120 days, about 4 months ▪ Replace 1% of them each day, 3 million new RBC every second ▪ Constantly rub on each other and wear off as they travel in the capillaries ▪ RBC is recycled, there is a chemical signal that says when the RBC is going to deteriorate/explode • Chemical signal attracts monocyte • Monocyte will engulf RBC; phagocytes are located inside the monocyte and will take apart hemoglobin • Denature call of the hemoglobin in the RBC- breaking bonds among tertiary structures, break all bonds b/w R groups and H • Inside of monocyte will end up containing amino acids and heme groups containing iron from the tertiary groups • Vesicles will package these components; golgi apparatus’s jobs o Vesicles containing alpha and beta chain amino acids will go to kidney and liver, will then be used for other purposes o Iron will be stripped off of the heme group, packaged in a vesicle, and will be relocated to spleen (storage unit of iron), or bone marrow in long bones (well blood cells are made) • Biliverdin- heme unit without iron, has greenish color o Will continue to undergo processing as monocyte takes the biliverdin all the way to the liver o Bilirubin- converted version of biliverdin (occurs in the monocyte) and gets dumped into the liver ▪ Has a yellow color ▪ Liver takes bilirubin, adds substances, chemicals, salts to turn it back to green  Bile • Jaundice- skin turns yellow because liver is receiving bilirubin and not turning it into bile ▪ Bile emulsifies fat; takes large pieces of fat and breaks it down to free fatty acids ▪ Liver makes more bile than it actually needs, takes bile and puts into gall bladder, gall bladder uses it during digestion • Blood Plasma: contains proteins, amino acids, glucose, many things float around plasma o Albumins- make up 60% of plasma proteins ▪ Carry free fatty acids in circulation for blood; binds to FFA so they can be transported in the blood ▪ Major contributors to oncotic pressure in the blood; Albumins oncotic particles, pull water towards them ▪ Oncotic particles- substances that attract water to the, Sodium is an oncotic substance ▪ Wherever an oncotic substance is, water will be force to go to it ▪ If there is a lot of oncotic particles in the interstitial spaces, water will go to interstitial space, if there is a lot of oncotic particles in the vessel, water will be pulled in the vessel. ▪ Hydrostatic pressure= pushes water out, Oncotic pressure= pushes waters towards ▪ Albumins carry thyroid hormones, any hormones that are steroid based, albumins can assist in carrying those in the blood o Globulins- make up 35% of plasma protein ▪ Antibodies or immunoglobins- help fight foreign invaders; messenger to the body that there are foreign substances • Do not eat cells; not phagocytic • Tells phagocytes what to eat, they only eat things that has antibodies attached to ▪ Part of immune system, released by a family of lymphocytes • There are 3 types of lymphocytes: B Cell, T Cell, NK Cell • The ability to maintain memory B cell, the ones that make antibodies, is genetically driven o If you are missing part of genome that allows you to maintain some memory cells; you are not able to keep up the production of some
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