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Lecture

MICROBIO 160 Lecture Notes - Nocebo, Mdm2, Radical Mastectomy

48 pages72 viewsSpring 2013

Department
Microbiology
Course Code
MICROBIO 160
Professor
Mitchell Walkowicz

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"Principles of Cancer Biology" Lewis J. Kleinsmith
"Biology of AIDS" Wilmore Webley - 2nd ed
Textbooks used as reference materials, individual readings:
So some male-specific cancers decreased, but some female-specific did not
Early detection best way to prevent cancer
HPV has caused oropharyngeal (throat), anal, and vulvar cancers to increase
PAP smears have prevented people from dying, but screening does not necessarily prevent spreading HPV
We have made significant decreases in most other diseases (heart disease, stroke, pneumonia), but only a 5% dent in cancer death rates in
the past 55 years
Cancer rates have decreased since 1975 because 15% decrease in smokers (who are majority male)
Familial 25%
Spontaneous 70%
Breast cancer
10% genetic
90% environmental (obesity, radiation, asbestos, organic solvents (eg dry cleaning fluid), etc.)
Cancer prevention - aim for a healthy weight maintenance, 30 mins of physical activity ea day,
30% cancer is from smoking, 30% from obesity. THESE ARE PREVENTABLE FACTORS. These are lifestyle choices, and so cancer is absolutely
avoidable
Cancer
Looking at a variety of cancers, there are sometimes a lot of new cases and few deaths (ex. Prostate cancer), and sometimes fewer cases with
very high death rates (esophageal)
Better living conditions, water treatment, vaccination, hygiene, health care, decreased infant mortality, nutrition increase life span which
means you now live long enough to develop cancer
Due to relative increases in the quality of sanitation, food, air, etc, the developed world has basically replaced lower respiratory infection and
diarrheal deaths (1 & 3 in 3rd world countries) with cancer and infectious diseases
Cancer is a function of making mistakes in copying DNA, so there cannot be a cure for cancer because it is a side-effect of a natural and necessary
body function, creating new cells
Only been an issue since 1981/1982
34 million infected, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa
HIV: Human immunodeficiency Virus
AIDS decreased in white pop, increased in black
AIDS infection rate highest in Wash DC (2% of pop), equal to rate in sub-Saharan Africa
97% in low/middle-income countries
Over 7000 HIV infections per day in 2009
1000 >15 yo
It is trending downwards, but not very quickly
Because of AIDS life expectancy in placed like Uganda, Botswana remains in 50s while US is around 78 years old
Infection rates facts:
US pays 30-40% more than the rest of the world, yet we have one of the least effective plans among 1st world nations
Saying "socialize medicine" and people run and say "communism!" and hate on you
US refuses to look at other systems
The professor is reaaaaaaaally pro-universal health care
Live longer = more chances to go to the hospital, get sick, get cancer, which means you spend more :(
Health Care
Lifestyle differences - men more likely to engage in risky behavior
Differences in biology - women carry babies, so their bodies are built to protect the mother, biologically tougher, female hormones protect
Women live 5 yrs longer than men
Lecture 1 - INTRO
Wednesday, January 23, 2013
10:06 AM
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Differences in biology - women carry babies, so their bodies are built to protect the mother, biologically tougher, female hormones protect
women from heart disease
Among those over 100, 85% are women
In young men, the testosterone storm can induce people to due stupid shit
When they commit suicide, men do it better. Women try more often, but men are more effective.
HIV increases cancer risk
Initially AIDS reduced life expectancy, then drugs helped (in 1st word initially, making an impact in 3rd world nowadays)
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Miasma theory of disease - the air makes you sick
The bad air is in the lowlands, in the swamps, so the rich have the highlands and are thereby not
sick (so often)
Nostradamus (plague era doctor)
In humans, any condition that causes discomfort, distress, social problems, dysfunction, or death
to the afflicted or those in contact
Syndrome - a net over a bunch of symptoms, broader definition than disease
Sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms,
deviant behaviors, and deviant variations of structure and function
Disease - abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions
The establishment said that ulcers could not be caused by bacteria until a guy drank a batch of
bacteria and gave himself ulcers. People were so convinced that it had to be stress/anxiety that
they limited the truth. Bastards.
Ulcers
Idiopathic - of unknown cause
Psychosomatic (somatoform) - only a mental thing, no physical cause
Pathogen-mediated
Specific organism or organism combo
Infections
Caused by genome mutation
Genetic
Ex molds, cigarette smoke, radon, lead poisoning...
Environmental
Categories of disease
Genetic
Environmental (ex. Radiation, breathing organic solvents…)
"contagious" (viral ) hepatitis, cervical, throat (HPV)
Cells transferred, tumor grows (contagious cellular cancer)
DFTV (Devil Facial Tumor Disease) - contacted when one Tazmanian Devil with DFTV bites a
healthy TazD
What kind of disease is cancer
Observe
Hypothesize
Experiment/data collection
Analysis of data
Results summarization (tables, graphs, etc)
Discussion of limitations and conclusions
ID future research needs
The SCIENTIFIC METHOD (again)
Aristotle - spontaneous generation (living things from nonliving things)
Jean Baptiste Van Helmont - mice come from rotting grains/dirty rags
Cell Theory Development
Lecture 2 - DISEASE
Friday, January 25, 2013
11:08 AM
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