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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Psychology & Brain Sciences

Development Newborns Reflexes Rooting – touch a newborn’s check with your finger and they will turn and start sucking Blinking – flash lights or wave your hand in your newborns eyes and he will blink Moro – hold an infant and drop him slightly and he will reach with his hands and legs Grasping – put your finger in a newborn’s hand and they will grab it Stepping – hold your newborn upright, slightly off the floor and they will make walking movements Preferences 1. faces/face-like images 2. human voices 3. mother’s sound and mother’s smell Cognitive Development Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development Background: What is a stage theory? 1. Humans move through predictable stages 2. They move from stage to stage at certain ages 3. Order is unchanging Basic assumption: children are active thinkers who try to construct more accurate/advanced understanding of the world How do children construct knowledge? 1. Assimilation a. Schemas – child has “cat schema”  4 legs, small, furry, animal. Sees a squirrel  assimilation  calls it “cat”. Sees lots of squirrels  accommodation  now schema for “squirrels” bushy tails 2. Accommodation Stage one: Sensori-motor stage When: birth to two years What is it: stage where child learns relationships between actions and the real world (cause and effect) Things that happen during this stage: motor activities, object permanence, attachment Stage two: Preoperational stage When: two years – seven years What is it: stage where child acquires the ability to form mental images of objects and events and can represent the world with words (language develops) Things that happen during this stage: symbolic play, egocentrism, lack conservation, can’t use logic or do mental operations **Read in text** Stage three: Concrete Operational Stage Stage fourL Formal Operational Stage Social Development Attachment:  A strong emotional bond infants develop with their caregivers Strange situation test – the caregiver leaves the baby/child alone ith a stranger for several minutes and then returns to the room with the baby. Styles of attachment; 1. Secure a. Child: may cry when separated, but then explores new place. When mom returns, they go to her. b. P
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